TRAINING IN BILINGUAL LITERACY

Mersi Google pou bann zimaz

TRAINING IN BILINGUAL LITERACY

(MATERYO BAZIK POU ANSENGN LITERESI BILENG)
©Dev Virahsawmy

INTRODUCTION

After more than two decades of theoretical and practical work in bilingual literacy (Morisien and English, 2 creole languages) during which time specific ad hoc teaching materials were prepared to service the needs of specific groups – teachers of BEC, Bureau D’Education Catholique; inmates of MPS, Mauritius Prison Services; students of OUM, Open University of Mauritius; students of ICJM, Institut Cardinal Jean Margeot – the time has come to work out a consolidated version to meet the basic needs of teachers, teacher-trainers and teacher-trainees who want to specialise in BILINGUAL LITERACY IN MORISIEN AND ENGLISH. Its main preoccupation is to provide stakeholders including teachers and social workers with a training manual which may globally help them in their tasks of teaching and developing bilingual literacy skills (BLS).
Practising teachers will, of course, have to use it in a creative way, making necessary adaptations and offering supplementary materials wherever necessary with regards to different audiences having different backgrounds and needs.
But right from the start those concerned must understand that a new method is being proposed.
• The acquisition of literacy will be made through the learners’ L1 i.e their mother tongue known as Mauritian Creole or Morisien;
• Once basic L1 literacy competence has been mastered i.e word recognition and spelling, the L2, the official language of the Republic i.e English will be
introduced step by step;
• As both English and Morisien are creole languages, it is believed that a positive transfer of skills will take place;
• To teach the 4 skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) in both languages, a non-dogmatic approach should be adopted i.e a combination of grammar- translation and direct method.

CHAPTER 1

GRAPHEMES AND WORD BOUNDARIES

Graphemes are alphabets or letters or a combination of 2 or more letters/alphabets.

SIMPLE AND COMPOUND ALPHABETS WITH EXAMPLES

a/A

beginning: aaa (ouch)[expression of pain]; abba (alas); achoum (sneeze); ade (twofold); afre (horrible); agrave (get worse); aka (sister) [Tamil]; ale (to go); amer (bitter); ana (brother) [Telugu]; apa (sister) [Telugu]; ara (be angry); ase (enough); ate (atheist); avale (to swallow); ayo (O dear!)[exclamation]; azan (agent);
middle: bat (bat); chat (chat); dat (date); fab (fable); gate (darling); kat (four); lam (blade); mama (mother); nap (table cloth); pal (pale); ram (oar); sat (cat);
tas (cup); vas (cow); ward (ward); yam (to look); zak (jackfruit);
end: ba (kiss); chacha (uncle); dada (paternal grandfather); fatra (good for nothing); gana (uncouth); kaka (shit); lavwa (voice); masala (curry powder); nana
(maternal grandfather); papa (father); roja (Muslim fasting); soya (soya); tawa (hot plate for making paratha); vakwa (leaf used to make bags); waya (arse); yoga (yoga); zaza (chitchat);

an/An

beginning: anba (below); anbete (to fool); anbigi (ambiguous); anbote (beautifully); andete (in debt); anfet (in fact); angro (wholesale); ankete (inquire); anmwens (less); anpe (in peace); anreg (compliant); ansaler (in rut); anta (in a heap); antou (in all); antret (treacherously); anvant (on sale);
middle: abandone (to abandon); desandan (downhill); granmer (grandmother); lanti (lentils); manti (not true); pandil (clock); rantab (profitable); santiman (feeling); tantinn (aunty); vanze (avenge); zanti (kind);
end: ban (bench); dan (in); zanfan (child); legan (glove); kan (when); lan (slow); gouvernman (government); pan (peacock); ran (rank); disan (blood); tantan
(tempting); koutvan (storm); azan (agent);

ann/Ann

bann (plural marker); dann (unpolished rice); fann (split); longann (longan); kann (sugarcane); lamann (fine); banann (banana); pann (breakdown); rann (disgusting); lasann (ash); vann (van); wanntann (chinese delicacy); zann (son-in-law);

ar/Ar

beginning: ar (with); art (art);
middle: bardo (shingle); barlizour (dawn); dardar (energetically); fardo (burden); gardien (watchman); kargezon (cargo); larzes (generosity); maryaz (marriage); partaz (sharing); tarde (be late); zardinie (gardener);
end: bar (bar); far (headlight); lagar (station); jar (jar); kar (quarter); dilar (salted pork); lamar (marsh); par (share); rar (rare); zasar (pickle); tar (late); lavar (miser); bazar (market);

b/B

beginning: bal (ball) [where people dance]; bel (big); bil (bill); bol (bowl); boul (ball); blan (white); ble (blue); bliye (to forget); blok (block); bravo (bravo);
bred (green leaves) [food]; brit (rough); brode (embroider); brouet (wheelbarrow); bwat (box); bweter (sponger); bwi (boil);
middle: baba (baby); chabas (well-done); dobi (washerman); fode (must); gide (guide); kado (gift); lede (thimble); model (model); nodil (nodule); pedal (pedal); rado (raft); soda (soda water); vande (to sell); danbwa (wood); babwen (baboon); kable (to cable); etabli (workbench); tablo (board); (boubri (rash);
end: kebab (kabab); ladob (stew); feb (weak); gob (lump); job (job); kab (cable); lib (free); meb (furniture); nob (noble); peb (pub); rob (dress); sab (machete);
latab (table); zeb (zebra);

ch/Ch

beginning: chabas (bravo); chacha (paternal uncle); chake (to go for a walk); chalenj (challenge); champal (chappal); chek (cheque); chocho (to fuck); chok (choke); cholo (despicable person); chombo (to hold firmly); chouk-chouk (dummy);
middle: bacha (young child); bachara (unreliable person); choupchap (silent); fachak (slap); kachakcharli (an old car); koucha (a condiment); machann (rack); rachas (evil spirit);
end: bach (batch); mach (match); pach (patch);

d/D

beginning: dal (split peas); deg (huge biryani cooking pot); dis (ten); dom (dome); douz (twelve); dra (bedsheet); drol (strange); drwa (right);
middle: badam (nut); badinn (walking stick); bado (onlooker); badou (kiss); ladwann (Customs Service); ladou (a sweetmeat); ledan (tooth); ledo (back); madam (wife, Mrs); madegonn (breadfruit); madigra (ugly); Zedi (Thursday);
end: fad (insipid); gid (guide); kad (frame); kod (code); koud (to sew); rid (wrinkle); rod (seek); soud (weld); tied (lukewarm); vid (empty);

e/E

beginning: ebete (feel stupid); ede (help); efase (wipe out); egeye (to brighten up); eklere (to light up); eli (elect); emeter (emitter); ene (elder); epe (thick);
ere (happy); ese (essay); eta (hey you); evalie (evaluate); ex (ex); eze (well off);
middle: bet (stupid); det (debt); fet (festival); get (see); jet (jet); laket (fund raising); let (letter); met (metre); net (completely); pete (to fart); rel (rail);
set (seven); tete (breast); velour (velvet); wey (yes); yev (hare); zezer (girlfriend);
end: bate (beat); chake (go for a walk); andete (be in debt); fete (celebrate); gete (look); kote (where); loupe (miss); monte (climb); nate (braid); plake (plated); rate (miss); sote (jump); tate (feel); vote (vote); zape (bark);

en/En

beginning: enbesil (stupid); endesi (hesitant); enfidel (infidel); engra (ungrateful); enkapab (unable); enposib (impossible); ensatisfe (unsatisfied); entelizan (intelligent); envolonter (not deliberate); enzenier (engineer);
middle: biento (soon); frengan (smart); grenpe (climb); kenke (glass funnel of an oil lamp); Lendi (Monday); mengi-mengi (skinny); penso (brush); rense (rinse); senser (sincere); tente (grumble); venker (victorious); zenzen (brain);
end: ben (bath); den (suede); fen (hungry); gren (grain); len (linen); nen (dwarf); pwen (point); leren (waist); sen (saint); tren (train); veren (jack); vazen
(vagina);

enn/Enn

enn (one); benn (bounce); denn (turkey); genn (girdle); kenn (watch); lalenn (wool); penn (paint); renn (rein); senn (scene); kapitenn (captain); lavenn (vein); zenn (young);

er/Er

middle: berso (craddle); deryer (behind); gerye (warrior); klerdlinn (moonlight); lerla (then); Merkredi (Wednesday); nerve (nervous); perdi (lose); serse (get); terne (sneeze); verni (varnish); zerme (sprout);
end: fer (do); lager (war); leker (heart); lamer (sea); ner (nerve); per (afraid); erer (mistake); ser (sister); later (earth); lever (worm); yer (yesterday); zwer
(player);

f/F

beginning: fad (tasteless); feb (weak); fitir (future); foto (photo); for (strong); fou (mad); four (oven); frazil (fragile); freser (cold); frir (fry); fwet (whip);
middle: lafam (coquette); lafen (hunger); lafisel (string); lafo (scythe); lafours (banyan tree); laflam (flame); lafrengal (intense hunger);
end: kaf (negro); laf (venomous fish); maf (obese); zaf (mouth ulcer); bef (ox); sef (boss); dif (trouble); pif (drunk); rifraf (rough); sif (number); vif (lively);
bof (brother-in-law); sof (heat); bouf (eat hungrily); touf (bush);

g/G

beginning: gaf (blunder); gete (see); gid (guide); gom (eraser); gous (bribe); glase (cold); glise (slip); gra (fat); grese (oil); grif (claw); gro (big); group
(group);
middle: bagas (bagasse); baget (baton/wand); bagi (baggy); bago (run); bagou (flattery);
end: bag (ring); zigzag (zigzag); boug (bloke); deg (biryani cooking pot); fig (fig); gag (gag); jog (jog); meg (thin); peg (peg); reg (rule); vag (wave);

gn

begn (bathe); dagn (witch); gagn (win); lakagn (lazy); pagn (saree); segn (bleed); sign (sign); montagn (mountain);

h/H

haldi (pre-nuptial ceremony); harr (garland); hedboy (headboy); hijab (hijab); Holi (Holi); hom (home); horl (hall); horrni (Indian shawl);

i/I

beginning: ibiskis (hibiscus); ibou (owl); Id (Eid); ideal (ideal); idol (idol); ilegal (illegal); imoral (immoral); ine (inbord); ipokrit (hypocrite); irite
(irritate); isi (here); item (item); ivwar (ivory); izole (isolate);
middle: bil (bill); diil (deal); filing (filling station); gid (guide); kifkif (same value); liki (cunt); mis (miss); nisa (intense pleasure); pip (pipe); ris (rich);
sis (six); tib (tube); vif (lively); zip (skirt);
end: bi (ball bearing); chi (expression of disgust); didi (sister); fifi (effeminate); gi (clarified butter); ki (relative pronoun: who, which); li (he/she); mimi
(cat); ni (neither/nor); pi (stink); riye (laugh); si (if); ti (past tense marker); vi (landscape); wi (yes); zi (juice);

ie

Bondie (God); fie (rely); bankie (banker); balie (broom); karodamie (draughtboard); pie (tree); pitie (pity); vie (old); lizie (eye);

ier

labier (beer); fier (proud); pier (precious stone); lapousier (dust); larivier (river); manier (manner); tier (third);

in

drink (drink); link (link); sink (sink);

inn

binn (bin); finn (perfect tense marker); ginn (feeling of disgust); ki’nn (elision for ‘ki finn’); lalinn (moon); minn (noodle); pinn (pin); rwinn (ruin); pisinn
(pool); tantinn (aunt); vinn (come); kouzinn (cousin);

ir/Ir

beginning: irben (urban); irzan (urgent);
middle: dirte (hardness); pirte (purity); sirte (security); sirtou (above all); tirpwen (triangular file);
end: dir (hard); fitir (future); lir (read); mir (ripe); pir (pure); sourir (smile); tir (pull); vir (turn); zwir (enjoy).

j/J

jabaljas (brave person); jak (jack); jal (small cynbal); jam (jam); jaz (jazz); jin (jeans); job (job); joging (jogging); jok (joke); jos (pleasure); joukal
(immature); baj (badge); chalenj (challenge);

k/K

beginning: kab (cable); kad (frame); kaf (negro); kal (wedge); kann (cane); kap (cap); kar (quarter); kas (money); kat (four); kav (hole); ker (heart); kes (box);
middle: bake (tub); deker (hesitant); groker (jealous); lake (tail); moke (mock); pike (sting); roke (mongrel); soke (shock); toke (crazy); zoke (jockey);
end: bak (tray); chak (walk); dadak (piggyback); flouk (by chance); klak (slap); lak (snare); lamok (can); pokpok (afraid); rok (rock ’n’ roll); sok (shock); toktok
(mad); zouk (zouk);

l/L

beginning: laba (there); ladou (sweetmeat); laf (venemous fish); lagar (station); lak (snare); lalo (okra); lam (blade); lane (year); lapo (skin); lar (art); lasi
(lassi); latab (table); lavwa (voice); lay (garlic); laz (age);
middle: balon (balloon); dalon (friend); fale (must); golet (rod); kalot (slap); lale (alley); male (garland); pali (fade); ralanti (slow down); sali (floor); tali
(thali); valer (worth); zalou (jealous);
end: bal (bullet); chal (go); dal (dhal); fol (mad); lagal (scabies); mal (male); nil (draw); pil (battery); rol (role); sal (dirty); tol (iron sheet); vol (robbery);
lezel (wing);

m/M

beginning: mach (match); maf (clumsy); makro (pimp); malang (dirty); mam (pal); mani (fuss); map (map); mari (husband); mas (cannabis/ganja); mat (dingy); maz (magi); melimelo (hochpotch); molomolo (lethargic); moulondo (water melon);
middle: dime (tomorrow); dimoun (people); fime (smoke); lamak (hammock); lame (hand); lamone (money); laminn (mine); mami (maternal aunt); peman (payment); rarman (rarely); sirman (surely); tamam (very good); vomie (better); zame (never);
end: dam (puff); fam (woman); lagam (rhythm); jam (jam); lakrem (cream); lam (blade); mim (mime); pom (apple); rom (rum); sem (sow); tem (stamp); zom (man);

n/N

beginning: nacho (dance); nam (soul); naze (swim); nef (new); nek (just); ner (nerve); neve (nephew); niaz (cloud); nil (draw); nilon (nylon); nob (noble); nom (name); note (note); nouvo (new); nwar (black); Nwel (Christmas);
middle: banane (year); chana (chickpeas); dane (wretched); fane (fail); gana (uncouth); kanon (cannon); lane (year); mine (harass); nana (food); panir (panir); rani (queen); seni (caterpillar); touni (naked); vane (winnow); zanon (earring);
end: ban (bench); dan (in); fann (split); genn (girdle); kann (sugar cane); lalenn (wool); minn (Chinese noodle); nann (Asian bread); pann (breakdown); rann (S.A
rand); tann (not mature); vann (van); yenn (intense desire); zenn (young);

ng

bang (bhang); frang (harpoon); lalang (tongue); malang (dirty); lapang (fat round the waist); sang (belt); tang (tenrec); vavang (a fruit);

o/O

beginning: obez (obese); odek (look); ofe (in fact); oja (witchcraft); oka (in case); ole (want); omo (gay); onet (honest); opak (opaque); oranz (orange); osi (also);
otaz (hostage); oval (oval); oze (dare);
middle: bol (bowl); cholo (despicable person); dolok (Indian drum); fol (mad); golmal (messy); jos (pleasure); koson (pig); losion (perfume); mos (uninteresting); not (note); pos (pocket); ros (stone); sous (suck); tok (male headdress); voler (thief); zet (throw);
end: bato (ship); delo (water); falo (phallocrat); gato (cake); jo (friend); koko (coconut); lalo (okra); melimelo (ragbag); nacho (dance); pecho (friend); rato
(rake); sato (castle); tablo (board); velo (bicycle); yoyo (yoyo); zwazo (bird);

on/On

onte (ashamed); onz (eleven); bonte (kindness); donte (tame); fronte (be rude); gonfle (fill with air); kont (against); lontan (long ago); mont (watch); pontaz
(bypass); ronder (roundness); sondaz ( poll); tonton (uncle); blon (blond); don (donation); fron (forehead); gon (hinge); galon (gallon); ziromon (pumpkin); kapon (coward); ron (round); son (sound); manton (chin); savon (soap); gazon (lawn);

onn

bonn (good); donn (give); fonn (melt); madegonn (breadfruit); konn (know); felonn (troublemaker); lemonn (world); ponn (lay); laronn (child dance/circle singing game); lasonn (probe); tonn (ton); zonn (yellow);

or/Or

organn (organ); orne (decorate); orzi (orgy); borde (pull up); dortwar (dormitory); forse (compel); kor (corn); lor (gold); mor (dead); lenor (north); lepor (harbour);
oror (dawn); sor (fate); tor (fault); mazor (major);

ou/Ou

beginning: ou (you); oule (want); ourit (octopus); ourle (hem); oursen (sea urchin); Out (August); ouver (open);
middle: boul (ball); choula (conflict); doula (bridegroom); fouka (madman); goulag (gulag); joul (joule); kouler (colour); loulou (wolf); moul (mold); nouvo (new); poul (hen); roule (roll); soule (drunk); toulede (both); voun (a variety of reed);
end: labou (mud); ladou (sweetmeat); fou (mad); gou (taste); kou (cost); koulou (nail); mou (soft); nou (we); pou (future marker); larou (wheel); sou (cent); tou
(all); lazou (cheek);

oun

foufoun (term of endearment); dimoun (people); poun (female genital); tountoun (fat person); voun (a variety of reed);

our

bour (fuck); four (oven); kour (tuition); lakour (yard); lamour (love); pour (in favour of); latour (tower); zour (day);

p/P

beginning: pa (step); pach (patch); pad (pad); pak (pack); pal (pale); pan (peacock); pann (breakdown); paparr (pappadam); par (by); pas (pass); pat (tab); paz (page); peb (pub); peg (peg); pelmel (pellmell); per (afraid); pes (pest); pet (fart); pez (weigh); pi (stink); pil (battery); pinn (pin); priz (socket); pit (pit); pos
(pocket); pot (chamber pot); pov (poor); poz (pose); poul (chicken); poum (arse); poun (cunt);
middle: boper (father-in-law); dope (dope); frape (ice cold); gopia (imbecile); kapav (can); lapes (fishing); lapest (plague); lapo (skin); papa (father); rapas
(predator); sape (lucky); toupe (cheek); vaper (steam); zape (bark);
end: bap (hell); dop (dope); gap (gap); kap (cap); loup (lens); map (map); pip (pipe); lerip (wood shavings); lasoup (soup); tip (type); choupchap (shut up); flop
(flop); grap (bunch);

r/R

beginning: rabo (plane); rado (raft); rafraf (rough); raga (raga); Raki (Hindu celebration); rel (rail); rim (rhyme); ron (round); ris (rich); rote (burp); reve
(dream); raze (shave);
middle: bare (prevent); dore (gild); gore (cheat); kare (square); lare (stingy); pare (ready); sori (sorry); tire (shoot); vire (turn); zoure (swear);
end: bar (bar); chorr (thief); dir (say); for (strong); lager (war); jar (jar); leker (heart); ler (air); lamer (sea); ner (nerve); per (afraid); erer (error); ser
(sister); later (earth); ver (at about); zar (bearing);

rr

barrtann (pots and pans); garrbarr (great disorder); harr (garland); karribarri (an Indian dish); tarrtarri (a disease);

s/S

beginning: sab (cutlass/machete); sef (chief); sif (figure); sofe (heat); soud (weld); souf (breath); sak (bag); sal (dirty); soumrra (mean); son (sound); senn
(scene); sape (be lucky); sari (saree); sis (six); set (seven); sew (sev, Indian snack food); sex (sex); sey (try); sez (chair);
middle: basis (bass player); desen (drawing ); festen (feast); glise (slip); kase (break); lase (shoelace); mase (chew); nisa (enjoyment); pase (past tense); rase
(pull out); sise (vanity table); tise (weave); vise (screw);
end: bas (bass); chas (dead drunk); des (desk); fes (buttock); gos (clumsy); jos (intense pleasure); kas (money); las (loose); mas (ganja); nos (wedding anniversary); pos (pocket); ros (stone); tas (cup); vas (cow); zes (demeanour);

sh/Sh

deshe (waste); marshe (market); shal (shawl); kash (cash);

t/T

beginning: tab (multiplication tables); tarde (late); take (bolt); tafta (taffeta); tam (date); letan (weather); tipe (type); tire (pull out); tise (weave); tate
(feel); tax (tax); taye (cut);
middle: bate (strike); date (dated); fote (go wrong); gete (look); kato (a fish); loto (car); moto (motorcycle); poto (post); rato (rake); sato (castle); tete
(breast); veto (veto); zouti (tool);
end: bat (bat); chat (chat); dat (date); fet (festival); get (look); jet (jet); kat (four); let (letter); met (put); nat (mat); pit (pit); rat (miss); sat (cat); tit
(title); vit (quickly); wit (eight); zat (custard apple);

v/V

beginning: vag (wave); vann (van); vas (cow); vat (vat); vaz (chamber pot); vev (widow); vey (watch); vif (lively); vinn (come); vir (turn); vis (vice); vit (quickly);
viv (live); viz (aim); vol (robbery); vakabon (immoral); veritab (true); volatil (volatile); vitalite (vitality); vazafler (vase);
middle: bave (dribble); devet (maybe); faver (favour); kavo (burial chamber); lavwar (laundry room); move (bad); nave (turnip); pavaz (paving); ravaz (havoc); sovaz (savage); teve (TV); vavang (a tropical fruit);
end: lav (lava); kapav (can); rav (turnip); lev (get up); rev (dream); vev (widow); fov (beast of prey); mov (purple); sov (out of trouble); biv (blot); riv (rivet);
viv (live);

w/W

beginning: ward (ward); waya (arse); web (web); wi (yes); wifi (wifi); wiski (whisky); wit (eight); wok (wok);
middle: bawa (brother-in-law)[Telugu]; gawez (wedding); kawali (qawwali); tawa (tawa/hot plate);
end: baw (gunshot); biwbaw (not elegant); paw (Chinese stuffed bread); sawmay (Chinese delicacy); taw (tall person);

wa

bwa (wood); dwa (owe); fwa (time); kwa (what); lalwa (law); mwa (me); nwa (nut); pwa (weight); lerwa (king); laswa (silk); twa (you); lavwa (voice); lazwa (joy).

wann

ladwann (Customs Office); wanntann (Chinese delicacy); datwann (toothbrush made with a twig); lavwann (oats);

we

bweter (one who looks for favours); fwet (whip); labwet (bait); lalwes (aloe); lalwet (uvula); kwen (corner); lwen (far); mwen (less); pwen (point); swen (care); zwen (joint);

wenn

lakwenn (fat); zwenn (meet);

wer

laswer (sweat); zwer (player);

wi

bwi (boil); wi (yes); wifi (wifi); wip (whip); wiski (whisky); wit (eight);

wir

kwir (leather); zwir (enjoy);

x

boxe (box); labox (boxing); maxi (maxi); mixe (mix); rilax (relax); saxofonn (saxophone); tax (tax); taxi (taxi); tex (text);

y/Y

beginning: yam (watch furtively); yapyap (talk endlessly); yard (yard); yenn (craving); yer (yesterday); yev (hare); yoga (yoga); yoyo (yoyo);
middle: baya (churlish); lafaya (jubilation); kayakaya (unfit); maya (maya/illusion); saya (Indian male outfit); saye (slip); taye (cut); baye (yawn); kaye (exercisebook); peye (pay); reye (stike off); piyaz (pillage); griyad ( barbecue); griyaz (fencing);
end: bay (escort); day (midwife); fay (unfit); kay (quail); lay (garlic); may (maize); nay (dent); papay (papaya); maray (rudimentary shed); bangasay (a citrus fruit);
batay (battle); dey (mourning); lapey (pay); revey (alarm clock); avoy (send);

z/Z

beginning: zaf (mouth ulcer); zak (jackfruit); zalimet (match); zamalak (a tropical fruit); zanana (pineapple); zape (bark); zar (bearing); zes (funny behaviour); zete
(throw); zeye (carnation); zezer (girlfriend); zibie (game); zigmaga (absurdity); zis (only); ziz (judge);
middle: bazar (market); bezer (bad guy); bizou (jewel); fezer (hauty); koze (speak); kouzen (cousin); lazle (jam); mazor (major); naze (swim); peze ( hold fast); raze (shave); sozi (double); vazen (vagina); zaze (blabber);
end: baz (base ); bez (trouble); bizbiz (strife); bouz (move); faz (phase); fiz (fee); gaz (gas); jaz (jazz); laz (age); maz (magi); naz (swim); paz (page); laraz
(anger); saz (wise); tiz (stem); viz (aim); ziz (judge); doz (dose); loz ( box); poz (pose); roz (rose); soz (thing); toz (toga); lazorz (gauge);

SUMMARY

Learners must master the 53 graphemes and use them to build words. Before planning some exercises and other practical activities we will divide the graphemes into sub-groups to help teaching and learning. The sub-groups are:
1. Oral vowels: a, e, i, o, ou.
2. Nasal vowels: an, en, in, on.
3. Compound vowels: ann, enn, inn, onn, oun, ar, er, ir, or, our, ie, ier, wa, we, wi, wann, wen, wer, wir.
4. Simple consonants: b, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z.
5. Compound consonants: ch, gn, ng, rr, sh.

SUGGESTIONS FOR EXERCISES AND ACTIVITIES
1. Dictation: use words from the table above starting from simple monosyllabic words like ‘baz’ to multisyllabic words like ‘ziromon’ via bisyllabic words like
‘zipon’.
2. For each of the following graphemes give 5 words using them: ch, d, f, g, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, y, z, ng, an, on, en, inn, wen. Then translate them into
English.
EXAMPLES: b: bek, bouk, kab, taba, latab. In English: beak, he-goat, cable, tobacco, table.
3. Complete the following words by filling each blank with an oral vowel grapheme:

bak-; ch-k-; d-p-; f-m-; g-l-; t-m-m; v-l-z; z-l-;

ANSWERS

baka; chake; dope; fime; gale; tamam; vilaz; zile;

4. Complete the following words by filling each blank with a nasal vowel:

b-; led-;  laf-;  m-t; k-t-; p-t-; s-bl-; l-tm-; k-t-tm-; l-t-;

ANSWERS

bon; ledan; lafen; mont; kontan; panten; sanblan; lantman; kontantman; lontan;

5. Complete the following words by filling each blank with either an oral or a nasal vowel:

d-l-; d-t-; f-t-; gr-s-; k-s-k-s; l-str-; m-k-t-; p-t-s-; r-st-r-; z-r-m-;

ANSWERS

dalon; dite; fete; grasa; konsekans; lastron; mekontan; patison; restoran; ziromon;

6. Complete the following words by filling each blank with either an oral or a nasal or a compound vowel (also compound vowel+n):

d-t-; t-p-; b-ng-s-y; v-d-y; k-tr-; l-g-; p-d-si;

ANSWERS

datwann; toupe; bangasay; vinnday; kartron; longann; pardesi;

7. Complete the following words by filling each blank with simple and/or compound consonants:

la-an-agn; ko-e-ans; la-erd-an; ga-a-wa; t-ans-er-al; ze-e-al;

ANSWERS
lakanpagn; konesans; lamerdman; garatwa; transversal; zeneral;

8. Give the opposite of the following:

absan⇒ pr….. ;
adilt⇒ ze….. ;
adopte⇒ rez…. ;
agos⇒ ad….. ;
alime⇒ te…..;
anba⇒ l…….;
andan⇒ d….. ;
bakle ⇒ swa…..;
ba⇒ o….. ;
bese⇒ l……..;
bet ⇒ ma…. ;
blan ⇒ n….. ;
bon ⇒ m….. ;
boukle ⇒ dr….. ;
bouse ⇒ deb…..;
bien ⇒ mal…. ;
done ⇒ pr….. ;
kaye ⇒ f….. ;
gro ⇒ m…….;
ris ⇒ p….. ;
kontan ⇒ sa…….;
saler ⇒ fr…….;
zame ⇒ toul…..;
zoli ⇒ v…….;

9. Complete the following rhyming couplets:
EXAMPLE:
Mo kontan dans sega;
Manz kari m……….

Answer
Mo kontan dans sega;
Manz kari masala.

Please note: each line in the rhyming couplet must have the same number of syllables.
1. Enn papyon zonn lor enn fey ver
Pe kas poz dan soley l—r
2. Li dir nou li kontan nou;
Legete li pas b—u.
3. Li kontan fouy ti trou
Pou may krab tr—–lou.
4. Ti fanfan lor enn ban
Pe flote dan d–an.
5. Zako fer grimas, tou dimoun riye;
Dimoun fer grimas, tou zako b—e.
6. Li kwar limem gran mazor;
Kot li pase li kraz k–.
7. Enn fwa ti’ena enn gran komik
Ki ti ouver enn til–b-k.
8 Li peng, li krab, li lare;
Li pa kontan dep-ns-.
9. Piblisite diriz lavi,
Fer li konsom tou kos-n–i.
10. Kan zot lame zwenn bel bourzon frison;
Pli tipti kares provok exp–z–n

10. HAIKU (AYKOU in Morisien) is a short poem made of 17 syllables divided into 3 lines (5 syllables, 7 syllables and 5 syllables). Here is an example in Morisien by D.V:

GRO-GRA
Kan ou manz gonaz (5 syllables)
fatra, ou vinn gro ek gra. (7 syllables)
Lerla bez lor baz! (5 syllables)
Write a haiku in Morisien to express a strong feeling.

11. Translate the following words into English.
bazar; zouti; paparr; bizou; kapav; lepor; naze; fwet; ziromon; raze; kwir; golmal; ziz; yapyap; seni;

WORD BOUNDARY
In writing, word boundary is important for it shows where a word begins and ends. It is represented by a blank space. If the identification of graphemes is the first important task to develop a written tradition, the next important step is to decide on the boundaries of words. For example how do we write the equivalent Morisien expression for the English term ‘more or less’ or French ‘à peu près’. Should it be ‘a pe pre’ or ‘ape pre’ or ‘a-pe-pre’ or ‘apepre’? We prefer ‘apepre’. Are we right? Finding the suitable word boundaries is an ongoing struggle for any language with a strong oral tradition which is entering the world of writing, literacy and literature.

12. Which word boundaries do you think best?
la tab a manze; latab-amanze; latab a-manze; latabamanze; lataba manze;
tan ka mwa; tank-a-mwa; tanka mwa; tankamwa; tan kamwa;
la pli par; la plipar; lapli par; laplipar; la-pli-par;
gras a twa; grasa twa; grasatwa; gras-a-twa; grasa-twa;
tan zan tan; tan-zan-tan; tan zantan; tanzan-tan; tanzantan;
an plis ki sa; anplis kisa; anplis ki-sa; anpliskisa; anplis-kisa;

13. How do we say the words in exercise 12 in English?

ANSWERS: Dinner table; as for me; most; thanks to you; from time to time; moreover.

14. Do you agree with the following word boundaries:
NB: ‘ti zanfan’ means ‘small child’ while ‘tizanfan’ means ‘grandchild’.

an-n-ete; annete; an vakans; anvakans; demi-tour; demitour; semi serk; semiserk; ti pima; tipima; ti-pima; ti zanfan; tizanfan; gato koko; gatokoko; gato-koko; kari-pwason; kari pwason; karipwason; briyani legim; briyani-legim; briyanilegim; konze-piblik; konze piblik; konzepiblik; marsan bred; marsan-bred; marsanbred; li travay mem; limem travay; mem li travay; mem limem travay mem;
NB: Li travay mem (She/He works all the time); Limem travay (He/She is the one who works); Mem li travay (Even if she/he works); Mem limem travay mem (Even if she/he is the one who works all the time). These examples show the importance of word boundaries and word order.

TRANSFER OF SKILLS
This book is based on findings which show beyond doubt that linguistic skills mastered in the acquisition of literacy in Morisien pave the way to the mastery of literacy skills in English. Before we show how this takes place at the level of grapheme control, we must first iron out some confusion and misunderstanding.
• A complete knowledge of a language implies mastery of 4 skills which are: 1. Listening; 2. Speaking; 3. Reading; 4. Writing.
• As far as most Mauritians are concerned they possess only 2 skills in Morisien, namely: 1. Listening and 2. Speaking. Most Mauritians do NOT possess all FOUR skills in English or French or Bhojpuri or Telugu etc.
• Most Mauritians are in fact semiliterate. They are not literate in the language they speak fluently; they can only write a few random words in English or
French or Hindi etc. but are unable to construct grammatically correct sentences or compose a coherent text.
• Most people, including teachers and educational planners, do not see the difference between developing literacy (acquisition of 4 skills) and learning foreign languages. For practical reasons, if we want to train workers in the tourism sector to look after visitors, say from Italy, we have to teach them a few words and expressions relevant to their duties. It is not necessary to teach them the FOUR skills in Italian. A crash course of a few hours is all we need.
• English is our official language and French is semi-official. Consequently all citizens must be taught the 4 skills in these foreign languages. They are
foreign languages because they are not the L1 of the overall majority. Hence, they are L2 or foreign languages.
• The present language policy is not only unpedagogical. It is without any doubt an obstacle to personal and national development. Teaching literacy to 5 year olds in 3 FOREIGN languages at one and the same time while at the same time disregarding the L1 (Morisien) of 90% of all children is a recipe for disaster. A major reform is imperative if we want 9 year schooling to succeed.

WHAT IS TO BE DONE?

YEAR 1: MOTHER TONGUE MEDIUM

1.READING AND WRITING IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE;2.ENGLISH – ORAL WORK;3.MATHS in L1;4. GAMES and SPORTS; 5. ARTISTIC AND OTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES.

YEAR 2:MOTHER TONGUE MEDIUM

1.READING AND WRITING IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE;2.ENGLISH – READING AND WRITING;3.MATHS in L1; 4. GAMES and SPORTS; 5. ARTISTIC AND OTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES.

YEAR 3:MOTHER TONGUE MEDIUM

1.READING AND WRITING IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 2.ENGLISH – READING AND WRITING;3. MATHS in L1; 4.FRENCH – ORAL WORK; 5 GAMES, SPORTS; 6. ARTISTIC AND OTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES.

YEAR 4:MOTHER TONGUE MEDIUM

1.READING AND WRITING IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 2.ENGLISH – READING AND WRITING; 3.MATHS; 4. FRENCH – ORAL WORK; 5. GAMES,SPORTS; 6.  ARTISTIC AND OTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES.

YEAR 5:MOTHER TONGUE MEDIUM

1.READING AND WRITING IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 2.ENGLISH – READING AND WRITING; 3.MATHS; 4.FRENCH – READING AND WRITING; GAMES, SPORTS,ARTISTIC AND OTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES.

YEAR 6: ENGLISH MEDIUM

1.READING AND WRITING IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 2.ENGLISH – READING AND WRITING; 3. MATHS; 4. FRENCH – READING AND WRITING; 5. BASIC SCIENCE; 6. LITERATURE IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 7. LITERATURE IN ENGLISH; 8. GAMES, SPORTS; 9. ARTISTIC AND OTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES.

YEAR 7: ENGLISH MEDIUM

READING AND WRITING IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 2. ENGLISH – READING AND WRITING; 3. MATHS; 4. FRENCH – READING AND WRITING; 5. BASIC SCIENCE; 6. LIT IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 7. LITERATURE IN ENGLISH; 8. OTHER SUBJECTS; 9. GAMES,SPORTS; 10. ARTISTIC AND OTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES.

YEAR 8: ENGLISH MEDIUM

1. READING AND WRITING IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 2. ENGLISH – READING AND WRITING; 3. MATHS; 4. FRENCH – READING AND WRITING; 5. BASIC SCIENCE; 6. LITERATURE IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 7. LITERATURE IN ENGLISH; 8. OTHER SUBJECTS; 9. GAMES, SPORTS; 10. ARTISTIC AND OTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES.

YEAR 9: ENGLISH MEDIUM

1. READING AND WRITING IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 2. ENGLISH – READING AND WRITING; 3. MATHS; 4. FRENCH – READING AND WRITING; 5. BASIC SCIENCE; 6. LITERATURE IN MORISIEN/RODRIGE; 7. LITERATURE IN ENGLISH; 8. OTHER SUBJECTS; 9. GAMES, SPORTS; 10. ARTISTIC AND OTHER CREATIVE ACTIVITIES.

Note that at the beginning of year 6 there is a medium shift from mother tongue to English. Why English? There are 3 reasons:

1. English is the official language of the Maritime Republic of Mauritius and there is NO reason to change that.

2. English is a creole language and at the level of syntax the similarities will facilitate learners’ acquisition of the language. For more details please consult
my book ‘UBFL’ published by MGI (2013) and The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language by Professor David Crystal.

3. English is the most important language of South Africa, India and China, three BRICS countries with which we will have to develop strong links for our
development.

MORISIEN AND ENGLISH ARE COMPLEMENTARY

How will mother tongue literacy in Morisien help to master literacy skills in English?

1. Both Morisien and English use the Roman alphabets (a, b, c, d, etc.).

2. Both Morisien and English do NOT use diacritics (à, è, â, ê, é, ç etc.).

3. Both Morisien and English use the same punctuation conventions including the use of uppercase for the first letter of the names of days and months (Lendi, Mardi, Wednesday, Zanvie, December).

4. Most phonemes (sounds used to make words) found in English are also found in Morisien. Examples: ch as in English chat and Morisien chat; ch in English chose and Morisien choli.; j in English jam and Morisien jam; j in English job and Morisien job.

But it is not always plain sailing. There are areas of difficulties.

I. English uses the grapheme ‘q/Q’ which Morisien doesn’t. The sound /kw/ is represented by the grapheme <q>. Morisien uses grapheme <kw> for the sound /kw/.

II. When teaching oral skills in English some precautions are necessary. Some phonemes may also cause difficulty and embarassment and need special attention. They are the dental fricatives as <th> in this, that, those often pronounced zis, zat, zoz; the post-alveolar fricative as in ship which should not to be confused with sip.; the glottal fricative /h/ which helps to distinguish ‘hat’ from ‘at’; ‘hair’ from ‘air’; the approximant <r> which should not be confused with the uvular fricative used in Morisien. Learners should be helped to distinguish between English ‘red’ (rouz) and Morisien ‘red’ (stiff).

III. Moreover in English there are short and long vowels which help to distinguish between ‘shit’ and ‘sheet’; ‘ship’ and ‘sheep’; ‘sit’ and ‘seat’.

IV. Morisien is syllable-timed and English is stress-timed.

(A stress-timed language is a language where the stressed syllables are said at approximately regular intervals, and unstressed syllables shorten to fit this rhythm. Stress-timed languages can be compared with syllable-timed ones, where each syllable takes roughly the same amount of time.

Example
English and German are examples of stress-timed languages, while Spanish and Cantonese are syllable-timed.

In the classroom
Learners whose first language is syllable-timed often have problems producing the unstressed sounds in a stress-timed language like English, tending to give them equal stress.)

https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/stress-timed – BRITISH COUNCIL

TEACHING METHODS
Teachers must avoid any dogmatic approach. A pragmatic approach is more productive. Use talk, chalk, pictures, flash cards etc.

Here is a short list of words in Morisien and their English equivalents which teachers may use to teach writing Morisien and English ( bilingual
literacy): avion/airplane; baba/baby; ches/chest; dalia/dahlia; exper/expert; femel/female; garaz/garage; montagn/mountain; halwa/halwa; ivwar/ivory; jaz/jazz; kibord/keyboard; labourer/labourer; miting/meeting; noenntri/no entry; mang/mango; obez/obese; oursen/urchin; parfen/perfume; rouz/red; stok/stock; kash/cash; tabla/tabla; vann/van; warning/warning; taxi/taxi; yoga/yoga; zigzag/zigzag …

In the book TRAINING MANUAL IN BILINGUAL LITERACY teachers may find plenty of such examples.

Use flashcards as shown below:

Image result for airplane avion/airplane
balon/ balloon
chapati/ chappati
danser/ dancer
egalite/ equality
fakir/ fakir
   gitar/ guitar
halwa/ halwa
idio/ idiot
jaz/ jazz
karate/ karate
lalev/ lips
miting/ meeting
noenntri/ no entry
obez/ obese
   pilot/ pilot
regat/ regatta
soset/ socks
tomat/ tomato
vann/ van
wok/ wok
boxer/ boxer
yoyo/yoyo
zeb/ zebra

PHRASE
A phrase is a group of words but is NOT a sentence. After learning individual words in Morisien and English, we can look at group of words as in noun and verb phrases.

NOUN PHRASE
Examples:

MORISIEN ENGLISH
enn gran pie tamaren a big tamarind tree
enn ti pie goyav a small guava tree
vie lakaz tol la the old corrugated iron shack
sa nouvo lakaz beton la this new concrete house
bann zoli fler beautiful flowers
detrwa vilen pikan a few ugly thorns
bann kouler larkansiel colours of the rainbow
enn mach foutborl a football match

VERB PHRASE (GROUP VERBAL)

Examples:

MORISIEN ENGLISH
pe manze am/are/is eating
ti manze ate
finn manze has/have eaten
ti finn manze had eaten
ti pe manze was/were eating
pou manze will eat
ti pou manze would eat
pe antonn gonaz ar lapeti is gulping down junk with gusto

CONCLUSION
This chapter offers to learners the graphemes they need to build words in their mother tongue and to grasp at the same time the orthography and meaning of some English words. Teachers should seize this opportunity to develop learners’ oral skills in English.

Now we can move to the building of grammatically correct sentences in Morisien and English.

CHAPTER 2

GRAMMAR
By grammar we mean the rules governing the composition of phrases and sentences. We will look at word classes, word order, markers of plurality, tense and aspects etc.
Morisien and English are, to different degrees, isolating languages. Morisien has only one grammatical inflection but combines words to generate new words.
Examples: 1. Verbs ending with ‘e’ like ‘manze’ or ‘respire’ lose the final ‘e’ when followed by a direct object. ‘Mo manze/ Mo manz dipen; Mo respire/ Mo respir ler fre’.
2. Two words may be combined to form new words: ‘gato’ and ‘pima’ become ‘gatopima’. Other examples: baget-fromaz; lisien-lasas; latabronn; montabra etc.
English uses some inflections to indicate the plural, tense and aspects and the genitive case. Examples: boy/boys; sit/sits/sat/sitting; Dev’s house etc. Besides using prefixes and suffixes, English combines words to generate new words. Examples: happy/unhappy; help/helpless; ‘door’ and ‘knob’ become ‘doorknob’.

WORD CLASSES
In both Morisien and English we have the following word classes: noun, determiner, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction and interjection.

NOUNS
Nouns are divided into different sub-classes such as common nouns, proper nouns. Common nouns can be further sub-divided into mass nouns and count nouns.

COMMON NOUNS
Examples: latab (table); sez (chair); sat (cat); pousen (chick) etc.

PROPER NOUNS
Examples: Dev, Gerard, Rozil, Id, Divali etc.

MASS NOUNS
They cannot be counted: lamour (love); lafwa (faith); lape (peace) etc.

COUNT NOUNS
They can be counted: enn fler (a flower); senk fler (five flowers); enn dimoun (one person); dis dimoun (ten persons) etc.

DETERMINERS
Determiners in English and Morisien are divided into sub-classes: definite article, indefinite article, demonstrative, possessive determiner, quantifier, numeral and plural marker.

DEFINITE ARTICLE
In English the definite article ‘the’ is placed before the noun it modifies: ‘the table’.
In Morisien the definite article is ‘la’. It is placed after the noun: ‘latab la’. It is a free lexeme which may also be placed at the end of a noun phrase.
Example: ‘latab mo fek aste la’.
Some people think it is a suffix and so they combine it with a noun using a hyphen: latab-la. This is a mistake. ‘La’, the definite article is not a bound morpheme but is a free lexeme.

INDEFINITE ARTICLE
The English indefinite article has two forms: ‘a’ and ‘an’. ‘a’ is used before a word beginning with a consonant; ‘an’ is used before a word beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o). The Morisien indefinite article is ‘enn’.
Example: a chair (enn sez); an armchair (enn fotey).

DEMONSTRATIVE
In English the singular form is ‘that’ or ‘this’. The plural form is ‘those’ or ‘these’.
In Morisien the singular form is ‘sa … la’ and the plural form is ‘sa bann … la’.
Example: this/that table (sa latab la); these/those tables (sa bann latab la).

POSSESSIVE DETERMINER
Possessive determiners in English are: my, your, his/her, its, our, their. In Morisien they are: mo, to, ou, so, nou, zot, bannla zot.
Example: my house (mo lakaz); your house (to/ou/zot lakaz); his/her/its house (so lakaz); our house (nou lakaz); their house (bannla zot lakaz).

QUANTIFIER
In English and Morisien, a quantifier indicates an indefinite quantity such as: many (boukou), much (boukou), several (enn pake/plizier), few (detrwa), some (enpe) etc.

NUMERAL
In English and Morisien numerals indicate quantity with precision: two (de), twelve (douz), hundred (san) etc.

PLURAL MARKERS
In English, in general, the inflection ‘s’ or ‘es’ are used to indicate the plural form. There are also other forms: ‘man’ becomes ‘men’; ‘furniture’ or ‘cattle’ stays the same.
In Morisien ‘bann’ is the plural marker.
Example: bann lakaz (houses), bann loto (cars), bann zanimo (animals) etc.

PRONOUNS
Beside being substitutes to nouns, pronouns have also different other functions but for practical pedagogical purposes we will use the term in its traditional way.
Some different functions are: personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns, and indefinite pronouns.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
In English the personal pronouns are: I (mo), you (to/ou), he/she/it (li), we (nou), you (zot), they (bannla).
When used as direct object as in ‘He told me/you/him/her/us/you/them’ (Li ti dir mwa/twa/ou/li/nou/zot/bannla) personal pronouns become ‘me, you, him/her, us, you, them’.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
as SUBJECT in MORISIEN AND ENGLISH
mo/I; to, ou/you; li/ he, she, it; nou/we; zot/you; bannla/they.

as OBJECT in MORISIEN and ENGLISH
mwa/me; twa,ou/you; li/he, she, it; nou/us; zot/you; bannla/them.

OTHER FUNCTIONS: REFLEXIVE; RELATIVE; INTERROGATIVE; INDEFINITE
REFLEXIVE: I hurt myself (Mo bles momem); we will hurt ourselves (nou pou bles noumem); they will hurt themselves. (Bannla pou bles zotmem.)
RELATIVE: the car which you bought (loto ki to ti aste); Seki dir sa koz manti. (Those who say this are lying.)
INTERROGATIVE: What did you do? (Ki to ti fer?); Kisannla ti dir sa? (Who said that?); Which one do you want? (Lekel to ole?)
INDEFINITE: Personn pa kone. (Nobody knows.) Kikenn pe vini. (Somebody is coming.) Ena kwar dan mirak (Some believe in miracles.)

SOME EXERCISES
1. Translate into English:
I. Nou lakaz
II. Sa lakaz la
III. (tifi la) so lakaz
IV. (garson la) so lakaz
V. Enn lakaz
VI. Enn dizef
VII. Bann lakaz
VIII. Bannla zot lakaz
IX. Enpe dilo
X. Boukou dilo
XI. Enn pake dimoun
XII. Boukou lafwa
XIII. Detrwa fler
XIV. Enpe disik
XV. Enn kantite lakaz

2. Translate into Morisien:
a) The house
b) A house
c) That house
d) My house
e) Our house
f) Houses
g) Their house
h) Their houses
i) Some salt
j) Much milk
k) Many dogs
l) Plenty of help

3. Complete the following translations:
1) He told me ? Li ti dir ……..
2) He told you ? Li ti dir ……./ …….
3) He told us ? Li ti dir ……..
4) He told them ? Li ti dir ………

VERBS
In both English and Morisien there are transitive and intransitive verbs. Transitive verbs take direct objects while intransitive verbs do not.
Example: 1. I eat rice (Mo manz diri). 2. It rains (lapli tonbe).
In both English and Morisien all verbs, except for Morisien stative verbs (see stative verbs below), take tense and aspect markers.

ENGLISH and MORISIEN
PRESENT: I walk a mile./ Mo mars enn mil.
PAST: I walked a mile./ Mo ti mars enn mil.
FUTURE: I will walk a mile./ Mo pou mars enn mil.
CONDITIONAL: I would walk a mile if … / Mo ti pou mars enn mil si …

PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
PRESENT CONTINUOUS: I am walking a mile./ Mo pe mars enn mil.
PAST CONTINUOUS: I was walking a mile./ Mo ti pe mars enn mil.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS: I will be walking a mile./ Mo pou pe mars enn mil.

PERFECTIVE ASPECT
PRESENT PERFECT: I have walked a mile./ Mo finn mars enn mil.
PAST PERFECT: I had walked a mile./ Mo ti finn mars enn mil.
FUTURE PERFECT: I will have walked a mile./ Mo pou finn mars enn mil.

STATIVE VERBS
In English a copula is used to link a noun to an adjective, an adverb or a noun phrase. It is any form of the auxiliary ‘to be’ (is, are, was, were, will be, has been,
had been). In Morisien, at present, the copula is not used although some linguists think that some forms of a copula are emerging. In English, too, the copula was a latecomer. There are many languages which do not use a copula. Morisien is one of them. Arabic is another. In certain circumstances Russian omit the copula.
In the following sentences we will treat the predicate as stative verbs.

SUBJECT ……..PREDICATE
Sa boug la…… vantar.
Loto la………laba.
Li ………….anba lamer.
Liv la……….lor latab.

Stative verbs take the tense markers ‘ti’ and ‘pou’ but not the aspect markers ‘pe’ and finn’.
EXAMPLES:
• Sa boug la pou anba lamer.
• Liv la ti lor latab.
But we cannot say *‘Sa boug la pe/finn anba lamer.’ or *‘Liv la pe/finn lor latab.’
In English a predicate using the copula does not, in general, take the progressive aspect marker.
We cannot say:
• *That bloke is being proud.
• *The car is being there.
• *The book is being on the table.
An asterisk* is used to indicate that something is unacceptable.
But there are some exceptions:
This child is being silly/naughty (is acting in a silly or naughty way).
In English the following is acceptable:
• The car has been there.
• The book has been on the table.

FACILITATION AND HURDLES
Because English and Morisien have common features, skills mastered in Morisien can be transferred to the learning process of literacy in English. But teachers must be aware that because there are areas of nonconformity special approaches and care are needed.
The past tense marker in English is ‘ed’ placed at the end of the verb (talk …talked). But in English there are many irregular verbs like ‘eat, ate, eaten; drink, drank, drunk’. Learners must learn how to use them.

Here are some of them.

awake awoke awoken; bear bore borne; beat beat beaten; become became became; begin began begun; bet bet bet; bid bid bid; bind bound bound; bite bit bitten; bleed bled bled; blow blew blown; break broke broken; cast cast cast; catch caught caught; choose chose chosen; cling clung clung; come came come; cost cost cost; creep crept crept; cut cut cut; deal dealt dealt; dig dug dug;do did done; draw drew drawn;drink drank drunk; drive drove driven; eat ate eaten; fall fell fallen; feed fed fed;feel felt felt; fight fought fought; read read read;rid rid rid; ride rode ridden; ring rang rung; rise rose risen; run ran run;
say said said; see saw seen; seek sought sought; sell sold sold; win won won; wind wound wound; withdraw withdrew withdrawn; withhold withheld withheld; withstand withstood withstood; wring wrung wrung; write wrote written etc.

SOME EXERCISES
1. Translate into English:
a) Mo ti manz dipen.
b) Mo pou manz dipen.
c) Mo pe manz dipen.
d) Mo finn manz dipen.
e) Mo ti pe manz dipen.
f) Mo ti finn manz dipen.
g) Mo ti pou manz dipen.
h) Li zoli.
i) Li ti zoli.
j) Li pou zoli.

2. Translate into Morisien:
a) She is beautiful.
b) She is being naughty.
c) The book has been on the table.
d) He drank the wine.
e) The sun rises at six.
f) I wrote an essay.
g) My horse will win the race.
h) My horse has won the race.
i) I would go if I could.

ADJECTIVES

In both English and Morisien adjectives have two functions. They qualify a noun and function as predicate in a sentence. English uses the copula but Morisien predicates without a copula.
EXAMPLES:
• He is handsome.
• She was absent.
• They will be happy.
• Li elegan.
• Li ti absan.
• Zot pou ere.
N.B: ‘ti’ and ‘pou’ are not copulas but are past and future tense markers.
In English adjectives have only one form and are placed before the noun they qualify.

EXAMPLES:
A beautiful woman; a beautiful country; a beautiful flower, a beautiful mind etc.

In Morisien there are two types of adjectives: prenominal adjectives appear before nouns and postnominal appear after nouns.

EXAMPLES:
Enn zoli fler; enn bon dimoun; enn garson debrouyar; enn politisien malen etc.

In both English and Morisien a noun may be used as an adjective in the making of compound words.

EXAMPLES:
COMPOUND WORDS

cheese+cake = cheesecake
door+knob = doorknob
gato+pima = gatopima
lakaz+lisien = lakazlisien
bird+cage = birdcage
kari+laviann = kari-laviann
container+ship = container-ship
house+builder = house-builder
lakaz+beton = lakaz-beton

ADJECTIVE PHRASES
Both English and Morisien use adjective phrases, a group of words that function as an adjective. Let us look at the following example: Nelson Mandela Legacy Cup. It is made up of a proper noun (Nelson Mandela); a non-count noun (legacy); a count noun (cup). ‘Cup’ remains a noun but the other two function as adjectives which qualify (give more information on) the noun ‘cup’. As attributive words they occur before nouns. In Morisien adjective phrases (attributives) are normally placed after the noun (postnominal).

Look at the following examples.

Nelson Mandela Legacy Cup/Koup Eritaz Nelson Mandela
grey shingle roof house(adj+noun+noun+noun)/ lakaz twatir bardo gri
red metallic paint car (adj+adj+noun+noun)/ loto kouler rouz metalik
Father Christmas outfit (noun+noun+noun)/ kostim Bonom Nwel

ADVERBS
Adverbs in English and Morisien are words that modify:
• a verb (He drives slowly/ li roul lantman)
• an adjective (He drives a very fast car/ li kondwir enn loto extra rapid)
• another adverb (She drives quite slowly in her new car/ Li roul bien lantman dan so nouvo loto)

DIFFERENT KINDS OF ADVERBS IN ENGLISH AND MORISIEN
Adverbs of Manner
She spoke quietly. (Li ti koz dousman)

Adverbs of Place
The girl still lives there. (Tifi la touzour viv laba.)

Adverbs of Frequency
They go there every day./ (Zot/Bannla al laba toulezour)

Adverbs of Time
We left early. (Nou ti ale boner.)
Now we are happy. (Aster nou kontan.)

POSITIONS OF ADVERBS IN BOTH ENGLISH AND MORISIEN
One of the characteristics of adverbs in both languages is their ability to move around in a sentence.
Dousman li mirmir dan so zorey./ Softly she murmurs in his ear.
Li dousman mirmir dan so zorey./ He softly murmurs in her ear.
Li mirmir dan so zorey dousman./ She murmurs in her ear softly.
Rarman mo ekrir let. / Rarely do I write a letter.
Mo rarman ekrir let. / I rarely write a letter.
Mo ekrir let rarman. / I write letters rarely.
Anfen li ti vini. / At last he came.
Li ti vini anfen. / He came at last.
Fekla li ti vini. / Recently he came.
Li ti vini fekla. / He came recently.

ADVERBIALS
Adverbials are groups of words (noun phrases or prepositional phrases) which give supplementary information on verbs used in a sentence. In both English and Morisien there are time, manner and place adverbials.

TIME: He arrived early in the morning./ Li ti arive boner gramaten.
Rita leaves next week./ Rita pou parti lasemenn prosenn.
MANNER: I drive like a lunatic./ Mo kondire kouma enn fouka.
You speak with nice soft words. / Ou koz ar bon koze douser.
PLACE: I fell into the hole./ Mo ti tom dan trou la.
I live near him./ Mo res pre kot li.

PREPOSITIONS
Prepositions are needed to construct propositional phrases in both English and Morisien.
TIME: in a week’s time; until next week; in the morning; since last year; for two years; before the end of the month; from Monday to Friday; by 6 o’clock;
dan enn semenn; ziska semenn prosenn; dan gramaten; depi lane dernier; pandan de an; avan lafen-dimwa; depi Lendi ziska Vandredi; ver 6 er;

PLACE: in the kitchen; in the book; at the door; at work; on the table; on radio; next to me; under the table; across the pool;towards Rose Hill; a flower from the garden; dan lakwizinn; dan liv la; kot laport; dan travay; lor latab; dan radio;koste kot mwa; anba latab; atraver basen; ver Rozil; enn fler depi zarden;

INSTRUMENT: by bus/ par bis; with a knife / ar enn kanif;

CONJUNCTIONS
In English and Morisien conjunctions are used to connect words, sentences, phrases or clauses.

connect words: Devi takes milk and sugar. You can have either tea or coffee. You can have this but not that. Eat neither salt nor spices.
Devi pran dile ek disik. To kapav gagn swa dite swa kafe. To kapav gagn sa me pa lot. Pa manz ni disel ni zepis.

connect sentences: He likes to work and to have fun. He likes to have fun but hates to work. Neither does he sing nor does he dance.
Li kontan travay ek li kontan amize. Li kontan amize me li deteste travay. Ni li sante, ni li danse.

connect phrases: She loves comic films and musical comedies. I like sincere people but not self-seeking opportunists.
Li kontan fim komik ek komedi mizikal. Mo kontan dimoun senser me pa bann roder-bout.

connect clauses: I do this because I like it. Although I’m not well I have to work. He acts as if he knows best. I do this in order that you may be happy.
I’ll clean the house while you do the shopping.
Mo fer sa parski mo kontan. Mem mo pa bien mo bizen travay. Li fer vadire limem pli kone. Mo fer sa pou ki to ere. Mo pou netway lakaz ler to fer shoping.

INTERJECTIONS
Interjections are words or groups of words which are not grammatical lexemes but which are used in speech and writing to express authority or emotions such as surprise, disgust, pain, admiration, anger etc.
Here are some examples.

DISGUST: yak! wek!
PAIN: ouch! ayo!
ADMIRATION: wow! dife!
ANGER: fuck! ferfout!
SURPRISE: really! pa vre!
AUTHORITY: Do it! Fer li!

SOME EXERCISES
1. Translate into English:
a) Anne kontan manz dipen-diber-fromaz.
b) Yousouf ti prefer vwayaz par bis.
c) Suresh pe travay dan zarden.
d) Ler mo ti al get Dany li ti pe fer so zanfan manze.
e) Micheline pa finn fer so devwar.
f) Sofer la ti roul direk dan enn trou.
g) Ni Raja ni Rani pa pou vinn ed twa.
h) Me fer bien atansion.
i) Aret fane do ta!
j) Mo kontan jaz me mo prefer sega.

2. Translate into Morisien:
a) Your boyfriend will be waiting for you.
b) Your girlfriend will wait for you.
c) Tomorrow at this time I’ll be climbing a mountain.
d) At this time yesterday I was climbing a mountain.
e) Neither Jack nor Jill will be here.
f) I do this because they need help.
g) Although I’m tired I keep on working.
h) This man behaves as if there is no limit to his power.
i) “Don’t tell me!” he said in utter disbelief.
j) We are happy because we love country life.

3. Fill the blanks with the appropriate words:
a) Yer Sanjay —— fer dezord.
b) Dime Beth ——- marye.
c) Mo pa fen parski mo —– manze.
d) Ler Titi ti vinn get mwa, mo —– —– dormi.
e) Tamby koup dibwa —– lars.
f) Rachel pa kontan naz —– pisinn.
g) —– mo vilaz —– so vilaz ena senk mil.
h) Mo pou fann —– twa —- to sanze.
i) So ese —— size.
j) —— mo lakaz mo plant fler; —— mo lakaz mo plant legim.

4. Find compound words for the following:
a) a game in which two opposing teams of 11 players kick a ball: ———— (foutborl)
b) a sweet delicacy, prepared with sugar, honey, or the like: ————– (mitay)
c) a permanent road laid with rails: ————— (semennfer)
d) a series of vibrations induced in the earth’s crust: ————— (tranblemandter)
e) a building in which a school is conducted: —————- (batiman-lekol)
f) the spinal column; spine: —————– (kolonn-vertebral)
g) the slopes bordering a river: —————- (bor-larivier)
h) a transient storm of lightning and thunder: ————— (tanpet-elektrik)
i) used in schools for writing on with chalk: ————— (tablo-nwar)
j) a person who fights destructive fires: —————- (ponpie)

5. Translate into English:
a) Loto la ti pe roul dan direksion Rozil. (towards)
b) Li viv san traka. (without)
c) Li mont lor kolinn pou gagn enn pli bon vi. (upon)
d) Anba lamer ena enn varyete kreatir. (underneath)
e) Bal la ti travers so leker. (through)
f) Li viv parmi voler. (among)
g) Otour mo lakaz mo plant bann pie. (around)
h) Ant li ek mwa pa ena sekre. (between)
i) Ana pou rant andan lakav la. (inside)
j) Pre kot mo lakaz ena enn bistop. (near)

6. Translate into Morisien:
a) The lion was pacing about its cage.
b) The dog ran across the road.
c) He put his bicycle against the wall.
d) I couldn’t hear her amid the noise.
e) There is a bamboo hedge around the house.
f) We have an orchard behind our house.
g) What shall we have besides soft drinks?
h) He fell asleep during the show.
i) They all came except my father.
j) Five into ten makes two.
k) The school is near the market.
l) Keep off the grass.
m) There is rain over the whole country.
n) You should telephone as well as write.
o) I am not in favour of your idea.
p) We went swimming in spite of the cold weather.
q) Thanks to Saskia, we arrived on time.
r) I’d like to speak to you with regard to your work.
s) The cat is sitting on top of the roof.
t) According to me, he is lying.

SENTENCES
A sentence in English and Morisien is a group of words having a subject and a predicate.
SUBJECT/SIZE … PREDICATE / PREDIKA
I …………………get up early.
Mo …………………lev boner.
The beautiful flower ….fades in the sun.
Zoli fler la ………..fane dan soley.
My car …………..is there in the shade.
Mo loto ………..laba dan lonbraz.

We will consider here three types of sentences: SIMPLE, COMPOUND and COMPLEX.

Simple:
I love ice cream./Mo kontan sorbe.
Stanley is a good actor./ Stanley li enn bon akter.
Shirine lives by the sea./ Shirine res dan borlamer.

Compound:
I like apples and I relish mangoes./ Mo kontan pom e mo rafol mang.
We speak good Morisien but are not good in French./ Nou koz bon Morisien me nou Franse pa tro bon.
Neither can he dive nor can he swim./ Ni li konn plonze, ni li konn naze.
Either you share or you are left out./ Swa to partaze, swa to res andeor.

Complex:
The house in which I live is very old./ Lakaz kot mo reste li bien vie.
I told you that I was busy./ Mo ti dir twa ki mo ti okipe.
He swims where the river is not too deep./ Li naze kot larivier pa tro fon.
I smile because I’m happy./ Mo fer sourir parski mo ere.
I leave home before the sun rises./ Mo kit lakaz avan soley leve.
Although it’s cold I take a cold bath./ Malgre fer fre mo begn ar dilo fre.

Sentences can be classified according to their purposes: declarative; interrogative; exclamatory and imperative.

Declarative: I will write a novel./ Mo pou ekrir enn roman.
Interrogative: Will I write a novel? / Eski mo pou ekrir enn roman?
Can I write a novel? / Eski mo kapav ekrir enn roman?
Exclamatory: I’ll write that novel!/ Mo pou ekrir sa roman la!
Imperative: Go and write that novel!/ Al ekrir to roman!

NEGATION AND INTERROGATION
Affirmative sentences in Morisien are negated by placing ‘pa’ before the verb or verb phrase.
In English ‘not’ is placed between an auxiliary, modal or tense and aspect marker and the verb, adjective, noun phrase or adverbial. ‘Always’ (toultan) is negated by the word ‘never’ (zame). Some other negatives are: nobody, nothing, nowhere.
                            Affirmation ………. Negation
Li zoli. Li pa zoli/ It is pretty… It is not pretty.
Mo pou fer sa…. Mo pa pou fer sa. / I will do it….. I will not do it.
Mo kapav fer sa…… Mo pa kapav fer sa./ I can do this….I cannot do this.
Mo finn dir li…… Mo pa finn dir li./ I have told her…… I have not told her.
To fer palab…….. To pa fer palab./ You (do) gossip…… You do not gossip.
Mo kontan manze la ….. Mo pa kontan manze la./ I (do) like the food…. I do not like the food.
Ram toultan ed bann pov. … Ram zame ed bann pov./ Ram always helps the poor …… Ram never helps the poor.
Tou dimoun kone ….. Personn pa kone. / Everybody knows…….. Nobody knows.
Partou ena labou….. Okenn plas peyna labou./ There’s mud everywhere…. There’s mud nowhere(There’s no mud anywhere)
Tou zafer anvant……. Nanye pa anvant. / Everything is for sale……. Nothing is for sale.

Both English and Morisien have two types of questions:
1. Yes-no questions – Kestion wi-non;
2. Wh-questions – Kestion-K.

YES-NO/WI-NON: Will you go tomorrow? Are we ready? Is your suit new? Are you afraid of defeat?
Eski to pou ale dime? Eski nou pare? Eski to kostim nef? Eski to per defet?

WH-QUESTION/ KESTION-K
When will you go? Where will you go? How will you go? With whom will you go? Why will you go?
Kan to pou ale? Kot to pou ale? Kouma to pou ale? Ar kisannla to pou ale? Kifer to pou ale?

COMPLEX SENTENCES AND CLAUSES
In both English and Morisien a complex sentence has one main clause and at least one subordinate clause.

I left before the sun had risen.
I told her that she was wrong.
The car I have bought is powered by electricity.
I helped my brother because he was ill.
I live where the two rivers meet.
Although he is late he does not hurry.
If you do not change, you will regret it.
Mo ti sorti avan ki soley ti finn leve.
Mo ti dir li ki li ti antor.
Loto ki mo finn aste roul ar elektrisite.
Mo ti ed mo frer parski li ti malad.
Mo res kot de larivier zwenn.
Malgre li anretar li pa prese.
Si to pa sanze, to pou regrete.

FUNCTIONS OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

before the sun had risen/ avan ki soley ti finn leve (time adverbial clause)
that she was wrong/ ki li ti antor (noun clause)
I have bought/ mo finn aste (adjectival clause)
because he was ill/ parski li ti malad (reason adverbial clause)
where the two rivers meet/ kot de larivier zwenn (place adverbial clause)
although he is late/ malgre li anretar (concession adverbial clause)
if you do not change / si to pa sanze (condition adverbial clause)

WORD ORDER
Another important aspect of grammar is word order. As in English, in Morisien as well the word order in a phrase or sentence is crucial. In the case of declarative sentences the word order is similar.
Many Mauritians (subject) prefer to eat (verb) rice and curry (object) every day (adverb).
Boukou Morisien (subject) prefer manz (verb) diri ek kari (object) toulezour (adverb).

With negative sentences a slight change takes place:

English: I do not eat rice every day.
Morisien: Mo pa manz diri toulezour.
English: I have not eaten rice for a year.
Morisien: Mo pa finn manz diri depi enn an.

QUESTION STRUCTURES in English and Morisien are slightly different.

WORD ORDER – INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

English: Did you come?
Morisien: Eski to ti vini?
English: Why did you come?
Morisien: Kifer to ti vini?
English: When did you come?
Morisien: Kan to ti vini?

SOME EXERCISES
1. Combine the following simple sentences into complex sentences:
a) I live in a house. My house is by the sea.
b) My brother is ill. He needs my help. I will help him.
c) I am not well. I still must work.
d) I said to my friend, “I will help you.”
e) I was about to leave. He arrived unexpectedly.
f) He needs money. He wants to borrow. I will lend him some.
g) I was waiting at the bustop. He stopped to give me a lift.
h) She was successful. She worked very hard.
i) The telephone rang. I had gone out for lunch.
j) Sheila deserves a promotion. She is efficient.

2. Now translate your complex sentences into Morisien.

3. Transform these declarative sentences into questions:
a) Sabrina kapav lev sa pwa la.
b) Judith ankoler.
c) Kailash pou vini.
d) Bernard pe parti.
e) Saroj pe al laboutik.
f) Awa Bibi pe al Anvil par bis.
g) Dir mwa si mo gagn drwa fime.
h) Kamion la finn fer aksidan.
i) Mo mama pa pe vinn tousel.
j) Li al lapes kot brizan.

4. Now translate your questions in exercise 3 into English.

5. Negate the following English sentences:
a) The crowd is noisy.
b) Shirley runs a mile in four minutes.
c) Mick has painted a self-portrait.
d) My friend will be well in a few days’ time.
e) Rosie always likes to drive racing cars.
f) This lady is an expert in preparing Mauritian delicacies.
g) The engineer has found the cause of the breakdown.
h) This teacher copes well with boisterous pupils.
i) Dr Ken has saved many lives.
j) He is always ready to help.
k) Everybody was there.
l) Everything is costly.

6. Translate the negated sentences above into Morisien.

7. Describe the functions of the clauses in the sentences below.
a) Mo finn dir li ki li bizen aret fer lekouyon.
b) I told my children that politicians can rarely be trusted.
c) Mo viv dan enn flat ki pa lwen ar lagar.
d) I have a car which is quite old now.
e) Mo ankoler parski li finn ensilte mwa.
f) I thank God because I’ve had a good life.
g) Bann zanfan ti pe naze kot ti ena danze.
h) The lovers decided to go where mischief could not hurt them.
i) Mo prefer leve kan pe fer ankor nwar.
j) We should leave before it gets too hot.

8. Translate the Morisien sentences in exercise 7 into English and the English sentences into Morisien.

CHAPTER 3

LEXICAL DEVELOPMENT

The lexis of Morisien has known a spectacular growth. There are two forces at work:

1. borrowing from other languages (exogenous force) and

2. internal creativity (endogenous force).

The exogenous force is multifaceted. There are words from French, English, Bhojpuri, Telugu, Tamil, Urdu, Hakka etc. The sources may be religious, technological, legal, cullinary etc.
A very interesting source of lexical growth is the endogenous activity. I am not aware of serious work in this area and I can quote only a few examples from
observation and personal experience.

i. The word ‘mari’ initially a noun has become an adverb and an exclamation: mari zoli; mari!

ii. There is an abundance of compounds like: gatopima; gato-brenzel; kari-laviann; kari-legim; lakaz-zwazo; lakaz-lisien; dokter-leker; dokter-lizie; sime-zepeng; sime-zegwi; balye-koko; balye-fatak; douri-rasion; douri-pousfam; dilo-lapli; dilo-lavlasiet etc.

iii. A borrowed word may undergo semantic change. ‘Madam’ a title now also means ‘wife’.

iv. Expressions are created: ‘Enn petal rouz pa fer banane’ (one swallow does not make a summer); ‘pa melanz kalchoul’(don’t mix up things).

v. Coining portemanteau words: combining ‘glise’ and ‘ranpe’ to form ‘glipe’.

Below is a short list of Morisien words with the English translation between brackets. This partial lexicon may help teachers and trainers to prepare their work in bilingual literacy.

NOUNS/NOM
A
abazour (lampshade); abesede (alphabets); abitan (inhabitant); abolision (abolition); abonnman (subscription); abriti (idiot); abse (abcess); abstansion (abstention); adilt (adult); adision (addition); administrater (administrator); admirasion (admiration); admision (admission); adorasion (adoration); adverser (opponent); afeksion (affection); agreser (aggressor); agrikiltir (agriculture); agriment (agreement); agwa (go-between); akizasion (accusation); akize (accused); akonpagnment (accompaniment); akrobat (acrobat); akselerater (accelerator); aksidan (accident); aksion (action); akter (actor); aktivis (militant); aktris (actress); albom (album); aliminiom (aluminium); alkolik (alcoholic); alouda (alouda); alwa (halwa); amater (amateur); analiz (analysis); anbasader (ambassador); anbouteyaz (traffic jam); andikape (disabled person); anestezi (anaesthesia); anex (annex); anfle (lorry helper); angi (eel); Angle (English); anons (announcement); anpesman (hindrance); anplifikater (amplifier); anplwaye (employee); ansegnan (teacher); anset (ancestor); antivol (burglar proof bars); antrekoup (intercrop); anvi (desire); anz (angel); apartman (flat); apranti (apprentice); arpan (acre); arsitek (architect); arsiv (archives); artis (artist); artizan (craftsman); arwi (arrow root); asasen (murderer);
asistan (assistant); aterisaz (landing); atlas (atlas); atlet (athlete); aveg (blind); avion (airplane); avoka (barrister); avortman (abortion); Avril (April); avwe
(sollicitor); azan (agent); azann (azann – Muslim call to prayer);
B
ba (kiss); baba (baby); bachara (stupid person); badinaz (joke); baj (badge); bafoul (speaker); bag (ring); bagar (fight); bagas (bagasse); bagaz (luggage); baget (stick); baja (bhaji); bak (back); bake (bucket); baking (baking); baksis (baksheesh); bal (gunnysack); bal (bullet); baladez (portable lamp); balans (scales); balye (broom); balon (baloon); ban (bench); banane (year); banann (banana); banbou (bamboo); bandaz (bandage); bandi (ruffian); bandrol (banner); bang (soma); banndari (cook); bar (bar); baraswa (fish farm); baraz (fence); baret (hair-clip); barik (barrel); barket (food tray); barmenn (barman); barsketborl (basketball); basen (pool); batat (sweet potato); batem (christening); batiman (building); bato (boat); baton (stick); batri (battery); baitka (Indian club); baz (base); bazar (market); bebet (bug); bef (ox); beki (crutch); benefis (profi); ber (cradle); bersez (lullaby); betiz (vulgar word); beton (concrete); bibron (baby’s bottle); bife (cupboard); biret (oil can); biro (desk); bis (bus); bisiklet (bicycle); biskwi (biscuit); bistop (bus stop); biye (bank note); biznes (business); bizou (jewel); blok (concrete block); bobinn (spool); bofor (bumper); bol (bowl); bolom (old man); bom (bomb); bonbon (sweet); bonbonn (gas cylinder); Bondie (God); bonis (bonus); bonnfam (old woman); bot
(boot); boufon (fool); bouk (male goat); boul (ball); boulon (bolt); bourik (ass); bourzwa (boss); bouson (cork); bouster (booster); boutey (bottle); bouton (button); bouyon (thin soup); box (boot); brans (branch); brasle (bracelet); braib (bribe); bred (edible greenery); brenzel (brinjal); briyani (biryani); brizan (coral reefs); bros (brush); brouyar (fog); brouyon (draft); bwat (box);
C
chacha (uncle); chamkay (punishment); chapati (chapatti); ches (chest); chips (chips); chouk-chouk (dummy);
D
dal (dahl); dantifris (toothpaste); danze (danger); dat (date); dayri (diary); debarkader (wharf); debordman (flooding); debrouyar (resourceful person); defans (defence); defet (failure); defi (challenge); defile (parade); definision (definition); defisit (deficit); defo (defect); dega (damage); degizman (disguise); degou (disgust); degre (degree); dek (cauldron; large cooking pot); deklarasion (statement; registration); dekor (scenery); dekouvert (discovery); deksi (cooking pot); dele (extra time); delegasion (delegation); delenkan (delinquent); delivrans (deliverance); delo/dilo (water); delwil (oil); demann (marriage request); demaraz (start); demars (attempt); demision (dismissal); demokrasi (democracy); demolision (demolition); demon (devil); departman (department); depo (deposit); depouyman (counting of votes); depozision (complaint); depresiasion (depreciation); derik (crane); des (desk); Desam (December); desandan (descendant); desbinn (dustbin); deser (dessert); desen (drawing); deskripsion (description); desten (fate); destinasion (destination); destriksion (destruction); det (debt); detay (detail); detektiv (detective); detour (detour); devaliasion (devaluation); deviz (foreign currency); devlopman (development); devwar (homework); dezagreman (trouble); dezas (disaster); dezavantaz
(disadvantage); dezene (lunch); dezer (desert); dezir (desire); dezord (disorder); dezorder (troublemaker); diab (devil); diabet (diabetes); diadem (diadem); diagram (diagram); dialog (conversation); diaman (diamond); diamet (diameter); diber (butter); dibien (wealth); dible (wheat); dibri (dispute); dibwa (wood); diezel (diesel oil); difamasion (libel); dife (fire); difikilte (difficulty); diksioner (dictionary); diktater (dictator); dile (milk); dilo (water); dimal (hurt); Dimans (Sunday); dimansion (dimension); dimoun (people); dinamit (dynamite); dinamo (dynamo); dine (dinner); dinite (dignity); dinwar (soot); dipi (pus); dipin (bread); diplom (diploma); diplon (lead); direksion (direction); diri (rice); dirouz (lipstick); disab (sand); disan (blood); disel (salt); disip (disiple); disiplinn (discipline);
diskawnt (discount); disket (disket); diskision (discussion); diskriminasion (discrimination); dispanser (dispensary); distans (distance); distilri (distillery);
distribision (distribution); distrik (district); dite (tea); diten (thyme); ditor (harm); Divali (Divali); divan (wind); diven (wine); divizion (division); divors
(divorce); dizef (egg); dodo (dodo); dokiman (document); dokter (doctor); domaz (damage); dominer (bully); domino (domino); douk (difficult situation); douri (rice);  dous (shower); dout (doubt); doz (dose); dra (bed sheet); drenaz (WC); dren (drain); droger (drug addict);
E
ebenis (cabinetmaker); ebenn (ebony); egalite (equality); ekrito (sign); ekriven (writer); eleksion (election); elekter (voter); elektrisien (electrician); elektrisite
(electricity); elikopter (helicopter); elmet (helmet); enbesil (idiot); Endou (Hindu); enfirmie (male nurse); enportasion (import); enspekter (inspector); entelektiel (intellectual); enterpret (interpreter); entrodiksion (introduction); erer (error); esantiyon (sample); ese (essay); eseyaz (fitting); eskabo (step ladder); esklav (slave); esklavaz (slavery); espion (spy); etidian (student); etranze (stranger); evolision (evolution); exkirsion (outing); exkiz (apology); exper (expert); explikasion (explanation); explozion (explosion); expozision (exhibition); exsepsion (exception);
F
fakter (postman); fam (woman); fami (relative); faner (troublemaker); fantom (ghost); fardo (burden); fars (joke); fasilite (facility); faver (favour); fawl (foul);
fayl (file); fedartifis (fire works); federasion (federation); fennsifer (fun fair); feray (iron bar); fermtirekler (zip); festival (festival); fet (celebration);
Fevriye (February); fey (leaf); fezer (proud person); figir (face); filao (filao); filwar (chain); fim (film); fimie (manure); finans (money); fiol (vial); fit (puncture); fitnes (fitness); fitwar (sharpener); fizi (gun); flanbo (torch); flater (flatterer); fortinn (fortune); foser (unreliable person); fotey (armchair); foto (picture); fourset (fork); foutborl (football); fraka (disorder); fraz (sentence); freser (cold); fri (fruit); fren (brake); friyapen (breadfruit); frod (fraud); fromaz (cheese); fwet (whip);
G
gabzi (muddle); gaf (boat hook; blunder); gajak (nibbles); galimacha (mess); gamat (gamat – event on the eve of a wedding); ganja (gandia; Indian hemp); garanti (guarantee); garaz (garage); gard (policeman); gardien (watchman); gaspiyaz (wastage); gato (cake); gaz (gas); gazon (lawn); gid (guide); gidon (handlebar); glob (light bulb); goble (mug); gom (rubber); gonaz (rubbish); gopia (idiot); gou (taste); gout (drop); gouvernay (rudder); gouvernman (government); goyav (guava); grad (grade); graden (row of seats); gramer (grammar); grap (bunch); grif (claw); grog (drink); group (group);
H
halwa (halwa); harftaym (half time); hom (home); horl (hall);

I
Id (Eid- Muslim festival); idantite (identity); iliminasion (illumination); ilistrasion (illustration); imigran (immigrant); imen (human); imitasion (imitation); Indou
(Hindu); ipokrit (hypocrite); irigasion (irrigation); Islam (Islam); istwar (history);
J
jal (cymbal); jam (jam); jaz (jazz); jim (gym); job (job); joker (joker);

K
kaba (handbag); kabine (toilet); kabri (goat); kadna (padlock); kado (gift); kaka (shit); kal (wedge); kalkil (arithmetic); kalot (slap); kamarad (friend); kamion
(lorry); kanal (canal); kanar (duck); kanel (cinnamon); kanet (marble); kanif (pocket knife); kankrela (cockroach); kann (sugar-cane); kanpman (bungalow); kanser (cancer); kantik (hymn); kapital (capital); kapitenn (captain); kapot (condom); kapsilater (bottle opener); karanbol (starfruit); karant (buttocks); karay (saucepan); kardinal (cardinal); karo (field); karo (iron); karot (carot); kart (card); karya (termite); kaskad (waterfall); kasket (cap); kaso (prison); kastrol (pan); katalog (catalogue); katastrof (disaster); katedral (cathedral); Katolik (Catholic); kavern (cave); kaye (copybook); kazie (fish trap); kazot (chicken house); kikenn (someone); kiksoz (something); kivet (basin); koko (coconut); kol (collar); kolie (necklace); koloni (colony); kolonn (post); koltar (coal tar); komannman (commandment); komedi (comedy); komeraz (gossip); komi (shopkeeper); kominote (community); komite (committee); kompyouter (computer); kondision (condition); koneksion (connection); konfeti (confetti); konfor (comfort); konkour (contest); konpagni (company); konpleman (complement); konplikasion (complication); konplis (accomplice);
konplo (plot); konprime (pill); konsekans (consequence); konsey (advice); konsol (console); konsomater (consumer); konsonn (consonant); konstipasion (constipation); kont (account); kontak (contact); konteni (contents); kontra (contract); kontribision (contribution); kontrol (control); kontwar (counter); konversasion (conversation); konze (holiday); kopi (copy); koray (coral); kordonie (shoemaker); korn (horn); kosmar (nightmare); koson (pig); kostim (suit); koton (cotton); kouler (colour); koulou (nail); koumansman (beginning); kourpa (snail); koutim (custom); koutpie (kick); kouvertir (cover); kouyer (spoon); kouyon (idiot); kouzen (cousin); krab (crab); krapo (toad); kredi (on credit); Kreol Morisien (Mauritian Creole); krepisaz (plaster); kreson (water-cress); Kretien (Christian); krim (crime); krok (hook); krose (hook); krwayan (believer); kwafer (hairdresser); kwin (corner);
L
labank (bank); labatwar (slaughterhouse); Labib (Bible); labier (beer); labitid (habit); labiyman (clothing); laboratwar (laboratory); labours (scholarship); labous (mouth); labouzi (candle); labraget (fly); labrez (embers); labrim (mist); ladans (dance); ladig (dam); ladob (stew); ladrog (drug); laenn (hatred); lafami (family); lafaminn (famine); lafarinn (flour); lafiev (fever); lafen (hunger); laflam (flame); lafnet (window); lafore (forest); lafreyer (fear); lafwa (faith); lagar (station); lagazet (newspaper); lagign (bad luck); lagitar (guitar); laglas (mirror); lagon (lagoon); lagratel (itch); lagren (seed); lagres (fat); lagrev (strike); lak (snare); lakav (cave); lake (tail); lakle (key); laklos (bell); lakol (glue); lakoler (anger); lalang (tongue); lalanp (lamp); lalev (lip); laliann (creeper); lalimier (light);
lalinn (moon); lalis (list); lalit (struggle); lalwa (law); lam (blade); lamann (fine); lamans (handle); lamans (sleeve); lamar (marsh); lamaswar (jaw); lame (hand);
lamer (sea); lames (wick); lames (mass); lamitie (friendship); lamizer (poverty); lamizik (music); lamod (fashion); lamok (tin); lamone (money); lamor (death); lamour (love); lanatir (nature); landrwa (place); lane (year); lanez (snow); lanfer (hell); lang (language); lank (ink); lanpoul (bulb); lanterman (funeral); lanti (lentils); lantonwar (funnel); lanvlop (envelope); lanwit (night); laont (shame); laparey (apparatus); lapay (straw); lape (peace); lapeti (appetite); lapen (rabbit); laplaz (beach); lapli (rain); lapo (skin); lapolis (police); laport (door); lapoud(powder); lapriyer (prayer); larad (harbour); lardwar (slate); lareg (ruler); larenn (queen); lari (street); larivier (river); larkansiel (rainbow); larm (tear); larmwar (wardrobe); larou (wheel); larouy (rust); laroze (dew); larazwar (watering can); lars (axe); larzan (money); lasal (hall); lasam (room); lasann (ash); lasante (health); lasapel (chapel); lasas (hunting); lasel (saddle); lasemine (chimney); lasenn (chain); laser (meat); laserp (billhook); lasesres (drought); lasiet (plate); lasos (gravy); lasoup (soup); lasours (spring); laswa (silk); laswaf (thirst); laswer (sweat); latab (table); latant (tent); later (earth); latet (head); latrap (trap); latrinn (lavatory); latwal (cloth); lavabo (sink); lavantaz (advantage); lavaper (steam); lavarang (verandah); lavenir (future); lavenn (vein); laviann (meat); lavwa (voice); laz (age); lazam (leg); lazistis (justice); lazwa (joy); lider (leader); lebra (arm); ledan (tooth); ledikasion (education); ledo (back); ledwa (finger); legim (vegetable); legliz (church); lekip (team); lekol (school); lekor (body); lekran (screen); lemer (mayor); lendepandans (independence); Lendi (Monday); lendistri (industry); lenpas (impasse); lenprimri (press); lentere (interest); lenz (clothes); lepep (people); ler (air); lera (rat); lerb (grass); lesans (fuel); lesiel (sky); leskalie (staircase); leson (private tuition); lespas (space); lespri (mind); lespwar (hope); let (letter); leta (state); letan (time); letan (weather); letaz (storey); levantay (fan); lezar (gecko); lezel (wing); lezo (bone); liberte (freedom); libreri (library/bookshop); lide (idea); likou (neck); lili (bed); limon (lemon); linet (glasses); lipie (foot); lisien (dog); literatir (literature); liv (book); lizie (eye); lizinn (factory); lonbraz (shadow); lopinion (opinion); lopital (hospital); lopozision (opposition); lor (gold); loraz (thunder); lord (order); lorizon (horizon); lorye (pillow); lotelri (hotel business); loto (car); lotorite (authority); lotri (lottery); louvraz (work); loxizenn (oxygen);
M
madam (woman/wife); maja (delight); makaroni (macaroni); maladi (disease); malediksion (curse); maler (misfortune); malsans (bad luck); mama (mother); mandian (beggar); manev (apprentice); mang (mango); maniok (cassava); manteg (ghee); manter (liar); manton (chin); manze (food); map (map); margoz (bittergourd); Mardi (Tuesday); mari (husband); marmit (cooking-pot); Mars (March); marsandiz (goods); marto (hammer); maryaz (wedding); maser (sister); mason (mason); matant (aunt); mach (match); matematik (mathematics); matla (mattress); Me (May); meb (furniture); meday (medal); melanz (mixture); memwar (memory); menas (threat); menot (handcuffs); Merkredi (Wednesday); mesaz (message); metal (metal); metie (occupation); mexinn (medicine); mikro (microphone); miltiplikasion (multiplication); minn (noodle); minit (minute); mirak (miracle); miting (meeting); mize (museum); Mizilman (Muslim); mofinn (misfortune); moniman (monument); mons (monster); mont (watch); montagn
(mountain); moulen (mill); moustas (moustache); moustik (mosquito); mwano (sparrow);
N
nam (soul/ghost); narinn (nostril); nasion (nation); nat (mat); navir (ship); nene (nose); ners (nurse); neve (nephew); niaz (cloud); nik (nest); nilon (nylon);
nimero (number); nen (dwarf); niouz (news); nivo (level); nom (name); nom (noun); noter (notary); notis (notice); nouritir (food); Novam (November); Nwel (Christmas);
O
obligasion (obligation); obskirite (darkness); obstak (obstacle); ofans (offence); ogmantasion (rise); okilis (eye doctor); Oktob (October); omlet (omelette); oparler (loudspeaker); operasion (operation); orfelen (orphan); organizasion (organisation); otaz (hostage); ourit (octopus); oursen (urchin); Out (August); overtaym (overtime); ozonn (ozone);
P
pa (footstep); pagla (madman); Pak (Easter); palab (gossip); panik (panic); pann (breakdown); panndit (Hindu priest); pansion (pension); pansman (dressing); pantalon (trousers); papay (papaya); papie (paper); papiyon (butterfly); par (share); parad (parade); paradi (paradise); paragraf (paragraph); paralel (parallel); paran (parents); parasol (umbrella); pardon (mercy); parfen (perfume)parking (car park); parlman (parliament); parol (words); parti (party); partner (partner); pasaze (passenger); paspor (passport); pastan (hobby); patron (boss); paz (page); pelerinaz (pilgrimage); penalti (penalty); pegn (comb); perl (pearl); peron (doorstep); persez (drill); peryod (period); pese (sin); peser (fisherman); petal (petal); petar (firecracker); petrol (kerosene); piano (piano); piaw (fool); pies (girlfriend); piez (snare); pikan (thorn); piknik (picnic); pil (battery); pilil (pill); pilot (pilot); pima (chilly); pinso (brush); pion (messenger); pirat (pirate); pirog (pirogue); pis (flea); pisinn (swimming pool); pistas (peanut); pitay (money); plan (plan); plans (plank); plas (place); pleg (plug); plim (pen); plim (feather); poem (poem); polision (pollution); pom (apple); pon (bridge); portre (picture); pos (pocket); poto (post); poudinn (pudding); poul (hen); poule (chicken); poupet (doll); pous (thumb); prenom (first name); presion (pressure); prenses (princess); prezans (presence); prezidan (president); pri (price); profeser (teacher); profet (prophet); profi (profit); program (program); progre (progress); proverb (proverb); pwa (weight); pwason (fish); pwazon (poison);
R
rabo (plane); radar (radar); radio (radio); rafal (gust); ralonz (extension); ram (oar); randevou (appointment); rapor (report); rato (rake); ravann (ravann); ravaz
(devastation); reaksion (reaction); realite (reality); rebel (rebel); rediksion (reduction); refri (referee); rekolt (harvest); relasion (relation); relizion
(religion); remor (remorse); repa (meal); reparasion (repair); repetision (rehearsal); repiblik (republic); repitasion (reputation); repo (rest); repons (answer); repros (reproach); resepsion (reception); reset (receipts); resi (receipt); resor (spring); respirasion (breathing); restoran (restaurant); retour (return); retret (retirement); rev (dream); revans (revenge); reveni (income); revey (alarm clock); revi (magazine); revizion (revision); reyon (ray); rezen (grape); rezime (summary); rezon (reason); rido (curtain); rifil (refill); rimer (rumour); risk (risk); rob (dress); robo (robot); rol (role); rom (rum); ronpwen (roundabout); ros (stone); roten (rod); roupi (rupee); roz (rose); rozet (bow); rwayom (kingdom);
S
sab (machete); sagou (sago); sagren (sadness); sak (bag); sakrifis (sacrifice); sakristen (sexton); salad (salad); saler (heat); sali (floor); salon (sitting room);
Samdi (Saturday); samousa (samosa); sang (belt); sanpignon (mushroom); sante (song); sapen (Christmas tree); sapit (chapter); sapo (hat); saret (cart); sari (saree); saser (hunter); satini (chutney); savon (soap); sega (sega); sekre (sekret); seleksion (selection); semiz (shirt); sendika (trade union); Septam (September); serir (lock); sermon (sermon); sertifika (certificate); servant (servant); serviet (towel); servolan (kite); seval (horse); sex (sex); sez (chair); sezon (season); sibsid (subsidy); SIDA (AIDS); siek (century); sif (number); sign (sign); signal (signal); siklonn (cyclone); sikse (success); silab (syllable); silans (silence); sime (road); sinema (cinema); sirnom (surname); siro (syrup); sistem (system); site (working class housing estate); sitronel (lemon grass); skandal (scandal); skelet (skeleton); sofa (sofa); solda (soldier); soley (sun); somey (sleep); son (sound); sorbe (ice-cream); soset (sock); sosis (sausage); soufrans (suffering); soukoup (saucer); soulie (shoe); soursi (eyebrow); souvenir (souvenir); spor (sport); stasion (station); stati (statue); stepne (spare tyre);
T
tab (multiplication table); taba (tobacco); tabla (tabla); tablet (shelf); tablo (painting); tabisman (sugar estate); talan (talent); talon(heel); ramaren (tamarind); tami (sieve); tanbour (drum); tang (kind of hedgehog); tanpann (dandruff); tant (shopping bag); tantinn (aunt); tanto (late afternoon); tapaz (noise); tawa (tawa – metal plate for cooking farata); tax (tax); tayer (tailor); teat (theatre); teknik (technique); telefonn (telephone); televizion (television); tem (stamp); temwen (witness); teren (plot of land); term (term); tes (test); tib (tube); tifi (girl); taymteboul (timetable); tinel (tunnel); tipwa (pea); tiraz (draw); tirwar (drawer); tiyo (pipe); tok (turban); tomat (tomato); touf (bush); tourel (trowel); touris (tourist); tournavis (screw driver); trankilite (quietness); trans (slice); tras
(trace); travay (work); triko (jumper); triyang (triangle); trou (hole); troupo (herd); twalet (toilet);
V
vag (wave); vakabon (vagabond); valiz (suitcase); Vandredi (Friday); vantilater (fan); vanzans (revenge); vazlinn (vaseline); vef (widower); veren (jack); vesel
(crockery); vev (widow); vila (villa); vilaz (village); vineg (vinegar); vis (screw); vizit (visit); vokabiler (vocabulary); vol (theft); volan (steering wheel); volim
(volume); volkan (volcano); volonte (will ); vot (vote); vwayel (vowel); vwazen (neighbour);
W
weyter (waiter); ward (ward); waya (hip, buttocks); werksop (workshop); wi (yes); wikenn (weekend); wiski (whisky);
Y
yam (spy); yenn (craving); yev (hare); yoga (yoga); yoyo (yoyo);
Z
zafer (thing); zagraf (fastener); zak (jackfruit); zako (monkey); zanana (pineapple); zanbon (ham); zanfan (child); zanimo (animal); zansiv (gum); Zanvie (January); zarden (garden); zariko (bean); zarm (weapon); zeb (zebra); Zedi (Thursday); zegwi (needle); zekler (lightning); zelev (pupil); Zen (June); zenou (knee); zepeng (pin); zepis (spice); zepol (shoulder); zetwal (star); ziromon (pumpkin); Ziyet (July); zoke (jockey); zom (man); zoranz (orange); zorey (ear); zour (day); zouti (tool); zouzou (toy); zwazo (bird);

VERBS/VERB
A
abandone (to abandon); abime (to damage); abite (to live in); abiye (to get dressed); abize (to abuse); aboli (to abolish); abriti (to confuse); absorbe (to absorb); admet (to accept); admire (to admire); adopte (to adopt); adore (to adore); afebli (to weaken); afekte (to affect); agase (to annoy); agrandi (to enlarge); akeyir (to welcome); akimile (to pile up); akize (to accuse); akouse (to deliver); akrose (to hang); akselere (accelerate); aksepte (accept); ale (to go); alime (to light up); alonze (to lie down); amalgame (to amalgamate); amare (to tie); ameliore (to improve); amene (to bring); amize (to amuse); analize (to analyse); anbete (to deceive); anbome (embalm); anbrase (to kiss); anbrouye (to confuse); andirsi (to harden); andormi (to put to sleep); anexe (to annex); anfile (to thread a needle); anflame (to set on fire); angele (to scold); angrese (to fatten); anile (to cancel); ankadre (to frame); ankastre (to fit in); anonse (to announce); anpese (to prevent); anpwazone (to poison); anrezistre (to register); antere (to bury); antone (to stuff oneself); antoure (to circle); anvi (to wish); anvlope (to wrap); anvole (to fly); apele (to call); apiye (to support); aprann (to learn); apre (to chase); apresie (to appreciate); aprouve (to approve); aranze (to repair); arete (to stop); arive (to reach); arme (to arm); aroze (to water); asire (to insure); asiste (to attend); asize (to sit); aste (to buy); atake (to attack); atann (to wait); aterir (to land); atire (to attract); atrape (to catch); avale (to swallow); avanse (to move forward); averti (to inform); azir (to act); azoute (to add);
B
ba (to kiss); bakle (to scamp); balanse (to swing); balie (to sweep); balote (to lurch); bangole (to squander); bare (to stop); bate (to beat); bave (to slobber);
bayante (to sell at a low price); baye (to yawn); begeye (to stammer); beke (to peck); belo (to roll out); benefisie (to benefit); beni (to bless); bese (to lower);
bine (to hoe); bive (to absorb); bizen (must); blage (to chatter); blame (to blame); blese (to wound); bliye(to forget); bloke (to block); boude (to sulk); boure (to
run away); bouze (to move); boxe (to box); boykote (to boycott); brile (to burn); briye (to shine); brose (to brush); bwar (to drink); bwate (to limp); bwi (to boil);
Ch
chake (to go for a walk); chalenj (to challenge); cheke (to check); chocho (to fuck);
D
danse (to dance); debale (to unpack); debarase (to grt rid of); debarke (to unload); deborde (to overflow); debouse (to clean out); debranse (to prune); debrouye (to find one’s way); dedomaze (to compensate); defann (to defend); defer (to undo); defonse (to burst open); degaze (to hurry); dekaste (to unseal); deklare (to declare); dekole (to detach); dekonpoze (to decompose); dekouver (to discover); dekrir (to describe); delivre (to deliver); demare (to start); demaye (to unravel); demenaze (to move out); demisione (to resign); demoli (to demolish); demonte (to dismantle); denonse (to denounce); depane (to repair); depanse (to spend); depiste (to detect); deplase (to move); depler (to displease); deranze (to disturb); desine (to draw ); desire (to tear); detere (to unearth); deteste (to hate); devalie (to devalue); devaste (to devastate); devide (to empty); devine (to guess); devise (to unscrew); devlope (to develop); devore (to devour); dezabiye (to undress); dezarme (to disarm); dezele (to unfreeze); difame (to slander); dimande (to ask); diminie (to diminish); dir (to say); dirize (to rule); disoud (to dissolve); disparet (to disappear); divorse (to divorce); dizere (to digest); domine (to dominate, bully); done (to give); drese (to iron); droge (to take drugs);
E
edike (to educate); efase (to erase); eklate (to burst); eklere (to light); ekoute (to listen); elimine (to eliminate); ena (to have); ena (there is/are); enfekte (to
infect); enfize (to infuse); enflianse (to influence); enforme (to inform); ennjoy (to enjoy); enporte (to import); enpoze (to impose); enprime (to print); ensiste (to insist); enspire (to inspire); enstale (to install); enterese (to be interested); entrodir (to introduce); envante (to invent); envite (to invite); eple (to spell);
eskize (to excuse); espere (to hope); estime (to estimate); exazere (to exaggerate); existe (to exist); explike (to explain); exporte (to export); expoze (exhibit); exite (to excite); ezite (to hesitate);
F
fabrike (to make); fane (to do it wrong); farous (to scare away); fel (to fail); felisite (to congratulate); fer (to make, to do); fermal (to ache); ferme (to shut );
fete (to celebrate); fimle (to film); fite (to sharpen); flate (to flatter); fleri (to flower); flite (to flit); fonn (to melt); forse (to force); fouye (to dig);
frekante (to court); frir (to fry); frode (to do something illegal); frote (to rub); fwete (to whip);
G
gagne (to get); galoupe (to run); garanti (to guarantee); garde (to keep); gargarize (to gargle); gaspiye (to waste ); gate (to spoil); gazouye (to babble); gele (to weep); geri (to cure); gete (to look); gide (to guide); gidigidi (to tickle); glise (to slip); gobe (to catch); gonfle (to inflate); gore (to cheat); goute (to taste); grandi (to grow up); grate (to scratch); grene (to fall); grense (to creak); griye (to grill); grogne (to groan); groupe (to gather);
I
imite (to imitate); inisiale (to initial); inogire (to inaugurate); inonde (to flood); ipnotize (to hypnotise); irite (to irritate); irle (to howl); itilize (to
utilise); ize (to wear out);
K
kabose (to bend); kadnase (to lock); kaka (to shit); kalkile (to think); kalme (to calm down); kalote (to slap); kanpe (to camp); kapav (can); kape (to skip class or
school or work); karese (to caress); karote (to misfire); kase (to break); kasiet (to hide); kogne (to bump into); kole (to stick); koltare (to asphalt); komante (to
comment); kominie (to confirm); konbine (to combine); konble (to fill up); kondane (to condemn); kondire (to drive); kone (to know); konekte (to connect); konfese (to confess); konplete (to complete); konpoze (to compose); konpran (to understand); koseye (to advise); konsilte (to consult); konsole (to comfort); konsome (to consume); kontakte (to contact); konte (to count); kontrole (to control); konzele (to freeze); kopie (to copy); korde (to twist); koresponn (to correspond); korize (to correct); koronp (to corrupt); koste (to come near); koud (to sew); kouloute (to nail down); koumanse (to start); koupe (to cut); kourbe (to bend); kourtize (to court); kouse (to set); koute (to cost); kouve (to hatch); kouyone (to fool); koze (to speak); krase (to spit); kraze (to destroy); krepi (to plaster); krisifie (to crucify); kritike (to criticise); kriye (to shout); kwi (to cook);
L
lapes (to fish); large (to free); lasas (to hunt); lastik (to hassle); lave (to wash); legalize (to legalise); lese (to allow); leve (to get up); libere (to free);
lime (to file); limite (to limit); lite (to struggle); livre (to deliver); loue (to glorify); lwe (to rent);
M
makiye (to make up); malfer (to blunder); maltrete (to illtreat); mandaye (to cheat); mandie (to beg); manga (to be angry); manifeste (to demonstrate); maniganse (to plot); manke (to miss); mansione (to mention); manze (to eat); maron (to move off); marsande (to haggle); marye (to marry); masakre (to massacre); maske (to mask); masone (to put a new layer); mastike (to putty); matrake (to club); maye (to catch); meble (to furnish); megri (to lose weight); menase (to threaten); meprize (to despise); merite (to deserve); mete (to put); mizire (to measure); modernize (to modernise); moke (to mock); monte (to rise); montre (to show); mor (to die); morde (to bite); mouse (to blow one’s nose); mouye (to wet);
N
nate (to plait); navige (to navigate); naze (to swim); neglize (to neglect); netwaye (to clean); nivle (to level); nome (to nominate); note (to note); nouri (to feed);
O
obeir (to obey); oblize (to force); obzerve (to observe); ofanse (to offend); ogmante (to increase); okipe (to look after); ole (to want); opoze (to oppose); organize (to organise); orne (to decorate); otorize (to authorise); ouver (to open); oze (to dare);
P
pandi (to hang); panike (to panic); panse (to think); pardone (to forgive); paret (to appear); partaze (to share); parti (to go abroad); partisipe (to participate);
parye (to bet); pedale (to pedal); pense (to pinch); penn (to paint); piose (to dig); permet (to permit); perse (to pierce); peye (to pay); peze (to weigh); pibliye
(to publish); pike (to inject); pini (to punish); pipe (to heckle); plane (to glide); plante (to plant); plengne (to moan); plonze (to dive); plore (to weep); ponn (to
lay); pouri (to rot); pourswiv (to sue); pouse (to grow); poze (to put); pran (to take); prepare (to prepare); prete (to lend); prezante (to introduce); prezerve (to
preserve); priye (to pray); prodir (to produce); profite (to take advantage of); promet (to promise); proteste (to protest); proteze (to protect); provoke (to
provoke);
R
rabote (to plane); rafresi (to refresh); rakomode (to mend); rakonte (to tell); ralanti (to slow down); ramase (to pick up); rame (to row); rande (to give back); ranpe (to crawl); ranplase (to replace); ranpli (to fill); rantre (to enter); ranze (to repair); rase (to snatch); rate (to miss); ravaze (to ravage); raze (to shave);
reazir (to react); redi (to tighten); refer (to do again); regrete (to regret); rekolte (to harvest); rekonpanse (to reward); remarke (to notice); remersie (to thank);
rense (to rinse); rente (to work very hard); repare (to repair); repete (to repeat); repoze (to rest); resite (to recite); reste (to stay); retire (to withdraw);
retourne (to return); reve (to dream); revize (to revise); reziste (to resist); rime (to rhyme); rode (to search); rote (to burp); roule (to move);
S
sakouye (to shake); sante (to sing); santi (to smell); sanze (to change); sarze (to load); satisfer (to satisfy); segne (to bleed); sele (to seal up); selebre (to
celebrate); seme (to sow); senbolize (to symbolise); separe (to separate); sere (to tighten); servi (to serve); seye (to try); sifle (to whistle); signe (to sign);
signale (to signal); sikane (to tease); sinifie (to mean); sipliye (to beg); sorti (to go out); sote (to jump); soufer (to suffer); soufle (blow); soulaze (to
relieve); souleve (to lift); souligne (to underline); soupire (to sigh); souse (to suck); souye (to wipe); sove (to run away); swagne (to take care of); swazire (to
choose); swete (to wish); swiv (to follow);
T
tande (to hear); tape (to knock); tase (to get caught); tate (to feel); taye (to cut); tengn (to switch); telefone (to phone); temwagne (to witness); terne (to
sneeze); teste (to test); tini (to hold); tipe (to type); tire (to remove); tolere (to tolerate); tonbe (to fall); tortire (to torture); toufe (to smother); tourne (to
turn); touse (to touch); tradir (to translate); trakase (to worry); trangle (to choke); tranpe (to soak); transe (to slice); transpire (to sweat); travay (to work);
traverse (to cross); trene (to drag); trike (to trick); triyange (to find a way out); tronpe (to err); trouve (to find);
V
vakarne (to go for a walk); vaksine (to vaccinate); vanze (to avenge); venere (to worship); veye (to watch); vide (to pour); vini (to come); vise (to screw); viv (to
live); vize (to aim); vizite (to visit); vo (to be worth); vomi (to vomit); vwayaze (to travel);
W-Z
warning (to warn); yam (to look without being seen); yapyap (to talk endlessly); zaze (to talk nonsense); zerme (to germinate); zete (to throw); zigzage (to zigzag); zize (to judge); zongle (to juggle); zoure (to swear); zwe (to play); zwir (to enjoy);

ADJECTIVES/AZEKTIF
A
abime (damaged); abordab (not too expensive); absan (absent); absird (absurd); abstre (abstract); adikte (addicted); adoptif (adopted); adorab (adorable); adrwat (rightwing); afame (famished); afler (flowery); agasan (annoying); agos (leftwing); agreab (pleasant); agresif (aggressive); ak (acrid); akademik (academic); akaro (checked); akeyan (welcoming); akseptab (acceptable); aksesib (accessible); aktif (active); akwatik (aquatic); alal (halal); alert (flirtatious); alerzik (allergic); alite (bedridden); alkolik (alcoholic); alo (water-based); alwil (oil-based); anmani (fussy); amer (bitter); amikal (friendly); amizan (funny); amoure (in love); anbilan (itenerant); anbisie (ambitious); anbrouye (confused); andete (in debt); andikape (handicapped); anemi (anaemic); anfanten (childish); anfle (swollen); angaze (committed); ankoler (angry); annord (tidy); anpann (brokan down); anpoud (powdered); anrwe (hoarse); ansestral (ancestral); ansien (old); ante (haunted); antie (whole); antisosial (antisocial); anvog (fashionable); apetisan (delicious); apwa (spotted); artistik (artistic); artizanal (handmade); aryere (ignorant); avangard (avantgard); avanse (advanced); avarye (damaged);
B
ba (cheap; low); bankal (unsound); barbar (cruel); bavar (talkative); bet (silly); bileng (bilingual); bisagn (non-veg); blan (white); ble (blue); blon (blond);
bomarse (cheap); bon (good); boufi (swollen); boukle (curly); bouyant (boiling); brav (brave); bren (brown-skinned); brit (brutal);
D
daplon (upright); defansif (defensive); degoutan (disgusting); dekolte (low-necked); dekonserte (disappointed); dekoratif (ornamental); delave (stone-washed); delika (delicate); delix (luxury); demokratik (democratic); deplase (unbecoming); deryer (rear); devwe (devoted); diabetik (diabetic); diferan (different); difisil (difficult); dir (hard); dirab (durable); direk (direct); diskalifie (disqualified); distile (distilled); distre (absent-minded); dominer (domineering); dosil (submissive); dou (sweet); doub (double); drwat (straight);
E
edikatif (educational); efikas (efficient); efreyan (frightening); egal (equal); egri (bitter); ekzizan (demanding); ekzotik (exotic); elegan (elegant); elektrik
(electric); enorm (huge); epe (thick); ere (happy); eroik (heroic); esansiel (essential); exitan (exciting);
F
fad (tasteless); fanatik (fanatical); fasil (easy); fatal (fatal); fatigan (tiring); fay (ill); feb (weak); fen (hungry); fen (fine); feros (ferocious); fertil (fertile); filant (shooting); fizik (physical); fletri (withered); flexib (flexible); fou (mad); fran (frank); frazil (fragile); fre (cold; fresh); frel (weak);
G
gate (not fresh); glisan (slippery); global (global); golmal (wrong); gos (left); gourman (greedy); gra (fat); gran (big); grav (serious); gri (grey); gro (big);
grosie (rude);
I
ilegal (illegal); endesan (indecent); enfekte (infected); engra (ungrateful); enpasian (impatient); enpir (impure); enposib (impossible); ensinifian
(insignificant); entelizan (intelligent); envizib (invisible); imans (huge); imid (humid); ini (plain); initil (useless); inosan (innocent); ipokrit (hypocritical);
iresponsab (irresponsible); isterik (hysterical); itil (useful); ize (worn out);
K
kabose (dented); kalm (kalm); kapitone (quilted); kara (square); kler (fair-skinned); kolonial (colonial); komik (comic); konkre (concrete); konplike (complicated); konvenab (convenient); korek (fine); koryas (tough); kourt (short); kreatif (creative); krem (cream); kristal (crystal);
L
lare (mean); larz (big); las (loose); laswa (silk); legal (legal); leze (light); lis (smooth); lokal (local); long (long); lour (heavy); lous (odd);
M
maf (not slim); mal (male); malad (sick); malang (dirty); malelve (misbehaved); malen (intelligent, cunning); malere (poor); malfer (badly done); malonet (dishonest); malsans (unlucky); malsen (unhealthy); maro (brown); maske (masked); mat (mat, not glossy); maternel (motherly); meg (thin); metalik (metallic); mie (dumb); minant (annoying); mins (flimsy); mir (ripe); miskle (muscled); mizer (poor); modern (modern); monotonn (monotonous); Morisien (Mauritian); mortel (mortal); mosad (sad); mou (soft); mouste (spotted);
N
natirel (natural); nef (new); nerve (nervous); neseser (necessary); nin (dwarf); nouvo (new); nwar (black);
O
obeisan (obedient); obsenn (obscene); obskir (dark); ofisiel (official); onet (honest); oral (oral); oranz (orange); oriantal (oriental); orizinal (original);
orizontal (horizontal); ot (tall; high); oval (oval);
P
pal (pale); parfime (perfumed); pasab (not bad); plat (flat); plen (full); poli (polite); popiler (popular); pouri (rotten); prefere (favourite); prop (clean); pwisan
(powerful);
R
rapid (quick); rar (rare); realis (realist); red (hard); rekor (record); rezonab (reasonable); ridikil (ridiculous); ron (round); rouye (rusty); rouz (red); roz
(pink); rwayal (royal);
S
sal (dirty); sale (salted); salisan (gets easily dirty); sanzenn (impudent); segonder (secondary); sek (dry); sekre (secret); senp (simple); senser (sincere); ser (expensive); sere (tight); serye (serious); so (hot); som (dim); sourd (deaf); steril (sterile); swaf (thirsty);
T
tann (not mature); tantan (tempting); teti (stubborn); tied (lukewarm); tipti (small); tradisionel (traditional); trankil (quiet); trazik (tragic); tris (sad);
tropikal (tropical);
V
valab (valid); vantar (proud); ver (green); vie (old); vif (quick); vilen (ugly); violan (violent); visie (vicious);
Z
zalou (jealous); zanfout (selfish); zenn (young); zoli (beautiful); zonn (yellow);

ADVERBS/ADVERB
Adverbs which modify adjectives and adverbs: bien (very); extra (extra); mari (very); move (terribly);
Adverbs which modify verbs: vit (quickly); dousman (slowly);
Time adverbs: yer (yesterday); zordi (today); dime (tomorrow); asterla (now); fek (just); aler (on time); anretar (late); lontan (long ago);

COMPOUNDS
Morisien and English use plenty of compound words, an endogenous force of lexical creativity: pie-mang (mango-tree); pie-longann (longan-tree); gato-fromaz (cheesecake); kari-pwason (fish-curry); manze-lisien (dog food); lakaz-poupe (dollhouse); tes-disan (blood-test); pwagne-laport (doorknob) etc.

CHAPTER 4

READING AND WRITING

                           SECTION 1

SOME COMPREHENSION PASSAGES

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

1. THE WOLF AND THE KID
There was once a little kid whose growing horns made him think he was a grown-up Billy Goat and able to take care of himself. So one evening when the flock started home from the pasture and his mother called, the kid paid no heed and kept right on nibbling the tender grass. A little later when he lifted his head, the flock was gone.
He was all alone. The sun was sinking. Long shadows came creeping over the ground. A chilly little wind came creeping with them making scary noises in the grass. The kid shivered as he thought of the terrible wolf. Then he started wildly over the field, bleating for his mother. But not half-way, near a clump of trees, there was the wolf!
The kid knew there was little hope for him.
“Please, Mr. Wolf,” he said trembling, “I know you are going to eat me. But first please pipe me a tune, for I want to dance and be merry as long as I can.”
The wolf liked the idea of a little music before eating, so he struck up a merry tune and the Kid leaped and frisked gaily. Meanwhile, the flock was moving slowly homeward. In the still evening air the Wolf’s piping carried far. The shepherd dogs pricked up their ears. They recognized the song the wolf sings before a feast, and in a moment they were racing back to the pasture. The wolf’s song ended suddenly, and as he ran, with the dogs at his heels, he
called himself a fool for turning piper to please a Kid, when he should have stuck to his butcher’s trade.

Do not let anything turn you from your purpose.

QUESTIONS
a) Explain in Morisien the following expressions: able to take care of himself; making scary noises; struck up a merry tune; with the dogs at his heels.
b) Explain in English how the author creates an atmosphere of fear.
c) Describe in Morisien the character of the wolf.
d) Describe in English the character of the kid.
e) Translate the title into Morisien.
f) What is the moral of the story? (answer in English)
g) Translate this extract into Morisien: “There was once a little kid whose growing horns made him think he was a grown-up Billy Goat and able to take care of himself. So one evening when the flock started home from the pasture and his mother called, the kid paid no heed and kept right on nibbling the tender grass. A little later when he lifted his head, the flock was gone.”
h) Rewrite this story in Morisien in about 100 words.

Lir sa pasaz la e reponn bann kestion ki swiv..

2. ZISTWAR TORTI EK KANAR

Enn torti, kouma nou kone, toultan pe sarye so lakaz lor so ledo. Seye kouma li seye, zame li fouti kit so lakaz. Dapre rimer, bondie so vilaz ti desid pou pini li
parski li ti telman kontan kas poz kot li ki li pa ti pran lapenn al maryaz bondie la malgre ki ti avoy li enn envitasion spesial.
Amizir letan pase, so regre ti pe ogmante. Li ti bien sagren ki li ti refiz al maryaz so bondie. Ler li ti pe get bann lezot kreatir otour li, so leker ti pe fermal.
Li ti zalou zot lasans. Zwazo ti pe anvole; yev, serf ek seval ti kapav galoupe vit-vit; zako ti kapav sot depi enn pie pou al lor enn lot. Mem koulev ti kapav deplase lor vites. Tou bann kreatir bondie ti kapav vwayaze, vizit nouvo landrwa, dekouver nouvo peizaz me li, kouma enn piaw, ti oblize pil anplas ar so lakaz lor so ledo ek so ti lapat ki anpes li deplase lor vites. Li ti onte, agase ek extra tris.
Enn zour li ti rakont so tristes ar de kanar.
“E dalon, kas pa latet,” zot dir li. “Nou nou kapav fer twa vizit lemonn. Bien senp! Trap sa baton la ar to labous. Ser bien to lamaswar. Tansion babou! Bous labous!
Sinon to va regrete!”
Pa bizen dir ou! Misie Torti may baton la omilie ar so ledan e sak kanar trap enn bout baton la ar so labek. Ala lor vites zot lao dan lesiel!
Enn marten ki ti pe pase ti gagn sok.
“E! Pa oumem Lerwa Torti?” Li dimande.
“Keske ti krwa…”
Li pa ti dir plis. Kouma diplon li ti desann brit, al kraz lor enn ros.

KESTION
a) Explik sinifikasion sa bann expresion la: li ti telman kontan kas poz kot li; kapav deplase lor vites; kouma enn piaw.
b) Ki nou aprann lor mantalite torti dan sa zistwar la?
c) Tradir an Angle dernie fraz dan zistwar la: Kouma diplon li ti desann brit, al kraz lor enn ros.
d) “Keske ti krwa…” Ki lenformasion sa trwa mo la sarye lor personalite torti?
e) Rakont sa zistwar la dan pa plis ki 100 mo an Angle.
f) Ki moral sa zistwar la ete?

MORE COMPREHENSION PASSAGES FOR BEGINNERS

3. THE DOG, THE COCK, AND THE FOX

A dog and a cock, who were the best of friends, wished very much to see something of the world. So they decided to leave the farmyard and to set out into the world along the road that led to the woods. The two comrades travelled along in the very best of spirits and without meeting any adventure to speak of.
At nightfall the cock, looking for a place to roost, as was his custom, spied nearby a hollow tree that he thought would do very nicely for a night’s lodging. The dog could creep inside and the cock would fly up on one of the branches. So said, so done, and both slept very comfortably.
With the first glimmer of dawn the cock awoke. For the moment he forgot just where he was. He thought he was still in the farmyard where it had been his duty to arouse the household at daybreak. So standing on tip-toes he flapped his wings and crowed lustily. But instead of awakening the farmer, he awakened a fox not far off in the wood. The fox immediately had rosy visions of a very delicious breakfast. Hurrying to the tree where the cock was roosting, he said very politely:
“A hearty welcome to our woods, honored sir. I cannot tell you how glad I am to see you here. I am quite sure we shall become the closest of friends.”
“I feel highly flattered, kind sir,” replied the cock slyly. “If you will please go around to the door of my house at the foot of the tree, my porter will let you in.”
The hungry but unsuspecting fox, went around the tree as he was told, and in a twinkling the dog had seized him.
Those who try to deceive may expect to be paid in their own coin.

4. KISANNLA POU FER SA?

Bann lera miske ti plen viv toultan dan lafreyer. Enn gro matou ti pe fer zot mari mizer. Bann gran ti per pou kit zot trou pou al travay; bann zanfan ti gagn lord pa al zwe deor, tansion gro sat mesan fer zot soufer.
Prezidan lera miske ti dimann enn renion lasanble lera miske pou pran enn desizion parski li ti dir, “Sanepepasekontinie!” Ki ti bizen fer? Tou bann manm prezan ti donn zot lopinion, ti fer sizestion me okenn propozision pa ti gagn soutien mazorite. Li bien vre ki dan lasanble zot ti kontan koz nenport
Tar ver aswar ler dekourazman ti pe chombo tou dimoun, enn zenn joukal ti fer enn propozision. “Si nou atas enn laklos dan likou sat la, ler li apros nou, nou pou kone e nou kapav sove, al kasiet.”
“Extra lide sa! Kifer personn pa ti pans sa avan? Pourtan enn lide senp. Bravo ti lom. To pa joukal ditou!” zot tou ti pe dir for-for.
Lerla enn lavwa ki ti abitie kas nisa ti koumans koze. Lezot ti koumans grogne. “Sa li zame kontan kan tou dimoun kontan… Zis pilinge ek moulougande, samem li kone.”
Sa ti lavwa enn vie tonton ki ti toultan frot zot nene dan zot prop malprop pou fer zot reflesi.
Dabor li ti dir, “Lide zenes la extra!” Tou dimoun ti aplodi. “Anfen!” tou dimoun ti dir. Tou dimoun ti soulaze. Vie tonton pa ti pe radote. Tonton la kontinie, “Dir
mwa enn kou! Kisannla volonter pou atas laklos la dan likou sat la?”
Enn silans epe ek glasial ti anvlop lasanble. Tou dimoun ti kwak.

5. THE TOWN MOUSE AND THE COUNTRY MOUSE

A town mouse once visited a relative who lived in the country. For lunch the country mouse served wheat stalks, roots, and acorns, with a dash of cold water for drink.
The town mouse ate very sparingly, nibbling a little of this and a little of that, and by her manner making it very plain that she ate the simple food only to be
polite.
After the meal the friends had a long talk, or rather the town mouse talked about her life in the city while the country mouse listened. They then went to bed in a cozy nest in the hedgerow and slept in quiet and comfort until morning. In her sleep the country mouse dreamed she was a town mouse with all the luxuries and delights of city life that her friend had described for her. So the next day when the town mouse asked the country mouse to go home with her to the city, she gladly said yes.
When they reached the mansion in which the town mouse lived, they found on the table in the dining room the leavings of a very fine banquet. There were sweetmeats and jellies, pastries, delicious cheeses, indeed, the most tempting foods that a mouse can imagine. But just as the country mouse was about to nibble a dainty bit of pastry, she heard a cat mew loudly and scratch at the door. In great fear the mice scurried to a hiding place, where they lay quite still for a long time, hardly daring to breathe. When at last they ventured back to the feast, the door opened suddenly and in came the servants to clear the table, followed by the house dog.
The country mouse stopped in the town mouse’s den only long enough to pick up her carpet bag and umbrella.
“You may have luxuries and dainties that I have not,” she said as she hurried away, “but I prefer my plain food and simple life in the country with the peace and security that go with it.”
Poverty with security is better than plenty in the midst of fear and uncertainty.

6. ZISTWAR PAKE DIBWA

Enn fwa dan enn pei ti ena enn misie ki ti ena 11 garson, enn foul lekip foutborl. Me bann garson la zame ti dakor lor nanye. Toultan zot ti pe diskite, dispite, koz
kontrer, lager pou enn wi, pou enn non.
Bolom la ti nepli kone ki ti bizen fer. Enn zour kan tansion ant bann garson ti extra for e ki ti ena danze disan koule, li ti konpran nesesite azir vit. Dan so lakour ti ena bann pake dibwa anpile enn lor lot. Sa lepok la ti servi dibwa pou kwi manze. Li fer met enn pake dan so lavarang e ti apel so onz garson. Li ti dimann sakenn sey kas pake dibwa la. Enn par enn zot ti seye e bien sir zot pa ti fouti kas li.
Lerla li koup lakord lalwes ki ti atas pake la e li ti dir sakenn pran enn dibwa e sey kas li. Pak, pak, pak dibwa ti kase. Ebete bann garson la diboute, gete san
konpran ki zot papa ti anvi dir.
“Zot pa konpran? Enposib kas pake dibwa me enn dibwa tousel fasil pou kase. Parey kouma zot. Mo ena 11 garson, enn foul lekip foutborl. Si zot zwe kouma enn lekip, roule anekip, korpere kouma enn tiim zot pou konn sikse ek progre me si sakenn tir so kote, rod so prop bout, bengker sek, pou ena defet ek maler.”

7. THE SHEPHERD BOY AND THE WOLF

A shepherd boy tended his master’s sheep near a dark forest not far from the village. Soon he found life in the pasture very dull. All he could do to amuse himself was to talk to his dog or play on his shepherd’s pipe.
One day as he sat watching the sheep and the quiet forest, and thinking what he would do should he see a wolf, he thought of a plan to amuse himself.
His master had told him to call for help should a wolf attack the flock, and the villagers would drive it away. So now, though he had not seen anything that even looked like a wolf, he ran towards the village shouting at the top of his voice, “Wolf! Wolf!”
As he expected, the villagers who heard the cry dropped their work and ran in great excitement to the pasture. But when they got there they found the boy doubled up with laughter at the trick he had played on them.
A few days later the shepherd boy again shouted, “Wolf! Wolf!” Again the Villagers ran to help him, only to be laughed at again.
Then one evening as the sun was setting behind the forest and the shadows were creeping out over the pasture, a wolf really did spring from the underbrush and fall upon the sheep.
In terror the Boy ran towards the village shouting “Wolf! Wolf!” But though the Villagers heard the cry, they did not run to help him as they had before. “He cannot fool us again,” they said.
The Wolf killed a great many of the boy’s sheep and then slipped away into the forest.
Liars are not believed even when they speak the truth.

8. KAN KRAPO ROD LERWA

Bann krapo pa ti ena sef. Zot tou ti egal e zot ti gouvern zot lavi ansam. Tro boukou liberte ti pe fatig zot latet, fer zot vinn kouyon. Kifer? Personn pa ti pe
konpran. Ena ti pe dir ki zot ti gra; lezot ti pe dir ki zot ti kontan plengne. Zot ti lir dan liv ki dan lezot pei ti ena lerwa ek anperer ki ti organiz bel-bel jalsa
e zot ti anvi enn lerwa kouma Anperer Bokasa. Enn lerwa for ar ki pa ti ena katakata, sa ki zot ti ole. Zot ti avoy enn petision bondie zot vilaz pou dimann enn lerwa.
Bondie la ti soke. Partou zanimo ti pe fer revolision pou ranvers lerwa; so pep ti pe rod lerwa. Kouma bondie la ti kontan fer jok, li ti zet enn gro bout dibwa dan
lak ki ti provok enn sounami. Li ti panse ki sa ti pou satisfer zot gagn enn Lerwa Gro Dibwa. Dan koumansman zot ti paret satisfe me dousma-dousma zot ti plen ar enn lerwa ki ti pe flote kouma enn gro doumpak e ki ti pe ale kot bann zanfan krapo ti anvi pous li. Bann zanfan ti gagn li bonn. Zot ti mont lor ledo lerwa pou plonz dan dilo. Bann vie ti trouv sa inakseptab. Sirman ti enn lerwa fos sa!
Bann grandimoun ti zwenn pou pran enn desizion. Zot ti avoy enn nouvo petision zot bondie dan lekel zot ti dir li ki si li pa ti fer atansion zot ti pou sanz bondie.
Sa okenn bondie pa ti kapav axepte. Li ti avoy enn serpan ki ti kontan manz krapo. Toulezour li ti bizen trwa douzenn pou plen so vant. Popilasion krapo ti pe diminie rapidman. Tou bann krapo ti pe viv dan terer.
Bann krapo ti avoy enn nouvo petision dan enn langaz bien poli pou dimann zot bondie pardonn zot ek protez zot.
Bondie ti reponn, “Non, non, non! Sanz bondie silefo!”

9. THE LION AND THE MOUSE

A lion lay asleep in the forest, his great head resting on his paws. A timid little mouse came upon him unexpectedly, and in her fright and haste to get away, ran across the lion’s nose. Roused from his nap, the lion laid his huge paw angrily on the tiny creature to kill it.
“Spare me!” begged the poor mouse. “Please let me go and some day I will surely repay you.”
The lion was much amused to think that a mouse could ever help him. But he was generous and finally let the mouse go.
Some days later, while stalking his prey in the forest, the lion was caught in the toils of a hunter’s net. Unable to free himself, he filled the forest with his angry
roaring. The mouse knew the voice and quickly found the lion struggling in the net. Running to one of the great ropes that bound him, she gnawed it until it parted, and soon the lion was free.
“You laughed when I said I would repay you,” said the mouse. “Now you see that even a mouse can help a lion.”
A kindness is never wasted.

10. ZISTWAR ZANIMO MALAD AR LAPEST

Lapest ti pe fer ravaz parmi zanimo. Zot ti pe mor brit e personn pa ti pe konpran kifer. Bann zanimo ki dabitid ti ena bon lapeti ti pe degout manze e vit zot ti pe pati, vinn fay e tom sek.
Lerwa Lion ti konvok enn renion pou deside ki sime pou pran parski sitiasion ti vinn bien dramatik. Dapre Samazeste pese pey lor later. Bann zanimo ti fer telman erer ki bondie ti bien ankoler e ti avoy malediksion lor zot. Ti bizen fer sakrifis ar zanimo ki ti plis fane.
“Anou sakenn konfes nou pese e lerla nou deside kisannla pli koupab e sa zanimo la pou netway nou pese ar so disan. Pou donn bon lekzanp les mwa mo koumanse. Mo finn fer boukou krim. Mo finn touy boukou zanimo e parfwa mo finn mem touy dimoun. Mouton, kabri, serf, koson tou ti pas dan pake.”
Renar ti enn gran malen. Li ti pran laparol. “Mazeste, nou get laverite anfas. Kan ou touy enn zanimo pou manze sa li pa enn krim. Okontrer pou zanimo la li enn loner fini dan ou lestoma. Ki pli gran laont ki fini dan lestoma enn sakal ousa enn votour. Chittarrike! Ou dir nou ou finn touy dimoun? Enn krim sa? Ayo bondie! Bizen donn ou enn meday. Imen se ennmi zanimo. Kan ou touy nou ennmi ou enn sover, enn ero.”
Aplodisman, sonn petar, alim fedartifis.
Bann tig, leopar, loulou, renar tou ti koz parey kouma lerwa.
Aster ti ariv tour bourik. “Mo bien sagren pou dir zot ki yer mo ti rant dan karo ki pa ti pou mwa pou manz enn bouse manze parski mo ti fen.”
Manz lerb dan karo ki pa ti pou li? Sa ti enn krim kapital sa! Ala kifer lapest ti tom lor zot. Limem ti veritab koupab. Zot ti touy li e aroz so disan partou pou pous movezer.

                     SECTION 2

SOME SHORT POEMS

HAIKU (AYKOU)
A haiku is a short Japanese poem made up of 17 syllables divided into 3 lines of 5, 7 and 5 syllables each. Look at this well-known Japanese haiku by Matsuo Basho in a loose English translation:
at the age old pond (5)
a frog leaps into water (7)
a deep resonance (5)

Now here are a few Morisien aykou by Dev Virahsawmy:

FRIYAPEN
Li ron, li ranpli (5)
ar manze, ar fortifian.(7)
Fatra pa konpran. (5)

TI-ZAN
Li pa per ditou
lougarou, bonom loulou.
Li zis per monper.

MO PIE MANG
Mo pie mang donn mwa
nouritir, douser, lonbraz,
fey ver ek dibwa.

EKRIR
Aprann lir-ekrir
zame mo ti gagn li bonn
avan mo kiltir.

LIR
Met bann sign ansam
e souden enn gran laflam
ekler mo lasam.

EXERCISES
1. Count the number of syllables per line in these haikus.
2. Translate the haikus into English.
3. Write a few haikus expressing intense emotions you have experienced – joy, sorrow, fear, anguish etc.

ACROSTICS (AKROSTIK)

A typical and simple acrostic is a poem in which the first letter spells out a word or a message.
Here are two examples in English:
HOUSE

Home
Open and inviting
Universal
Safe and warm
Everything

CALENDAR ACROSTIC

JANet was quite ill one day.
FEBrile trouble came her way.
MARtyr-like, she lay in bed;
APRoned nurses softly sped.
MAYbe, said the leech judicial
JUNket would be beneficial.
JULeps, too, though freely tried,
AUGured ill, for Janet died.
SEPulchre was sadly made.
OCTaves pealed and prayers were said.
NOVices with ma’y a tear
DECorated Janet’s bier.

Now look at four original acrostic poems in Morisien by Dev Virahsawmy:

BOBASEN

Balfour apel mwa pou desann kaskad
Olie fer devwar, mont enn ran dan grad.
Bernar dir, “Anou lapes kamaron!”
Anon prefer zwe ar so servolan.
Silven li prefer lasal sinema;
Ezenn pedale, ris mwa ver Albion.
Nou dan Bobasen, nou ti bien ere.

GOUDLENNS

Gran Gob pa tro lwen laba dan lenor;
Olwen dan lamer Kwennmir fer fezer.
Uday lor disab get bato peser
Dan direksion les, ti vilaz Poud-dor.
Laba dan Triyang, Sen Kler, Mamzel Zann
Elenn ek Vasou ansam pe konstrir
Nouvo lavenir andeor reper
Noubann ek bannla dan kamion anpann
San ki efas net bote tou kiltir.

DIVALI

Deeya avek dife kosmik
Isi ek laba pe ekler
Vilaz ek lavil tou kouler
Ar douser mitay lamitie.
Lespwar aster kapav sante
Isi, laba nouvo kantik.

SEGA

Son ek armoni fer mazik
Ekler aswar ar lamizman.
Gran kouma piti anmouvman
Akoz mazik nou lamizik.

EXERCISES
1. Count the number of syllables per line in the different acrostic poems and study the rhyming schemes.
2. Write an acrostic poem spelling your name or the name of someone you like or love.
3. Translate the Sega acrostic into English.

LIMERICK (LIMERIK)

A limerick is a five line poem with the aabba rhyming pattern of a humourous nature. Look at the limerick below. The joke is found in the last word which is normally written ‘Nan took it’ but pronounced ‘nantucket’.

There was an Old Man of Nantucket (a)
Who kept all his cash in a bucket. (a)
His daughter, called Nan, (b)
Ran away with a man, (b)
And as for the bucket, Nantucket. (a)

Now study the following Morisien limericks by Dev Virahsawmy.

Please note the deviation from the norm as far as rhyming pattern is concerned.

GRAN MAZOR

Li kwar limem gran mazor,
kot li pase li kraz kor;
toultan li fer so fanor
ar seki pli feb ki li.
Enn swar li zwenn so sozi.

KASIET DAN KWEN

Ti ena enn mwa ki ti apel Zen,
pa kone kifer ti kasiet dan kwen.
Tann dir se akoz so gran kouzen Me
ek so ti kouzen, ki ti vinn apre,
ti pli long ki li, ti’ena trante-enn.

FELISIT SO TAYER

Li ena paysa. So tayer tir plan,
ranpli so larmwar ar dernie model.
Aster li kone li entelizan.
So nom lor lalis pou vinn prezidan
e so vantardiz finn sorti lor rel.

PRONONSE

Akoz li ti konn enpe Franse,
li refiz nenport ki lot koze.
Prononse, prononse, prononse!
Mem si seki ou dir li nahi
pourvi ki dan zorey li zoli.

SO LAFWA

So lafwa pli finn ki papie mouslinn
me so bataz -Bap!- kouma lafime
ki peple lanfer kot pe bril pese,
anbet tou lizie, fer manti vinn vre.
Mem so lafwa finn, so toupe latrinn.

TRO MALEN

Enn fwa ti’ena enn gran komik
ki ti ouver enn tilanbik
pou fer pitay koul dan dalo.
Biznes marse foul-foul, bayo!
Ziska li vinn enn alkolik.

EXERCISES
1. Translate Tro Malen into English.
2. Write a limerick on a person you know to show how ridiculous you find his pretension and ambition.
3. Write a critical appreciation in English of the limerick ‘So Lafwa’ paying attention to content and style (imageries, line length, rhyme, rhythm etc.) and then translate your work into Morisien.

SECTION 3

SOME LONGER POEMS IN ENGLISH AND MORISIEN

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

Sigh no more, ladies, sigh no more,
Men were deceivers ever;
One foot in sea, and one on shore,
To one thing never constant never.
Then sigh not so,
But let them go,
And be you blithe and bonny,
Converting all your sounds of woe
Into ‘hey nonny, nonny’.

Sing no more ditties, sing no more,
Of dumps so dull and heavy;
The fraud of men was ever so,
Since summer first was leavy.
Then sigh not so,
But let them go
And be you blithe and bonny,
Converting all your sounds of woe
Into ‘hey nonny, nonny’.

Pa ris leker, gate; pa ris leker!
Zom ti toultan kouyoner.
Timama isi, timama laba;
Zot toultan fer nachannya.
Aret plore,
Les zot ale;
Pengn seve, met rob afler;
Trap ravann, alim dife
Ar sante fer leker ge.

Aret sant sante maler ek mizer
Fer leker lour ar douler.
Bann zom ti toultan pe fann zot pikan;
Toultan samem zot talan.
Aret plore,
Les zot ale;
Pengn seve, met rob afler;
Trap ravann, alim dife
Ar sante fer leker ge.
(Translated by D.V)

Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603)

When I was fair and young, and favour graced me,
Of many was I sought their mistress for to be.
But I did scorn them all, and said to them therefore:
‘Go, go, go, seek some otherwhere; importune me no more.’

How many weeping eyes I made to pine in woe;
How many sighing hearts I have not skill to show,
But I the prouder grew, and still this spake therefore:
‘Go, go, go, seek some otherwhere; importune me no more.’

Then spake fair Venus’s son, that brave victorious boy,
Saying: ‘You dainty dame, for that you be so coy,
I will so pluck your plumes as you shall say no more:
”Go, go, go, seek some otherwhere; importune me no more”.’

As soon as he had said, such change grew in my breast
That neither night nor day I could take any rest.
Wherefore I did repent that I had said before:
‘Go, go, go, seek some otherwhere; importune me no more.’

Kan mo ti zenn ek zoli, boukou mous dimiel
Ti fer mo letour pou gout delis sitronel.
Sak fwa mo ti mepriz zot, zet dan karo-kann:
“Eh, grate, ale, fatra! Pa trouve zot rann?”

Komie lizie ranpli larm ti vinn mo viktim;
Komie leker plor disan ti perdi zot plim?
Mo vantar ti gonfle mem vadire enn glann:
“Eh, grate, ale, fatra! Pa trouve zot rann?”

Enn zour Kipid ti dir mwa – sa ti’enn kamoufle –
“Akoz ou zoli, madam, e ou tro triye,
Mo pou tay-tay ou palto, grenn ou fraz anpann”:
“Eh, grate, ale, fatra! Pa trouve zot rann?”

Parol sa ti garson la devir mo bol dal;
Gramaten, midi, minwi mo leker fermal.
Mo onte ar mo parol bann leker finn fann:
“Eh, grate, ale, fatra! Pa trouve zot rann?”
(Translated by D.V)

Christopher Marlowe

Come live with me and be my love,
And we will all the pleasures prove
That valleys, groves, hills, and fields,
Woods or steepy mountain yields.

And we will sit upon the rocks,
Seeing the shepherds feed their flocks,
By shallow rivers to whose falls
Melodious birds sing madrigals.

And I will make thee beds of roses
And a thousand fragrant posies,
A cap of flowers, and a kirtle
Embroidered all with leaves of myrtle;

A gown made of the finest wool
Which from our pretty lambs we pull;
Fair lined slippers for the cold,
With buckles of th purest gold;

A belt of straw and ivy buds,
With coral clasps and amber studs:
And if these pleasures may thee move,
Come live with me and be my love.

The shepherds’ swains shall dance and sing
For thy delight each May morning:
If these delights thy mind may move,
Then live with me and be my love.

Reste dormi, nou fer gate
E nou pou fer annwi kile
Ler nou pe gout tou bann douser
Later-lesiel pou nou finn fer.

Dan patiraz, dan bor dilo
Nou get gardien vey zanimo
E nou ekout zwazo sante
Dan enn konser bien kadanse.

Mo pou tres enn nat petal fler;
Ranz lorye ar bouke kouler;
Enn bere ar karipoule;
Enn tinik ar persi-frize;

Enn manto ar lalenn annyo
Ki sorti dan nou prop troupo,
Pantouf kashmir pou to lipie
Pou to sofe kan pe fer fre;

Enn ti sentir laliann anfler
Dekore ar koki boner:
Si tousala fer twa ere,
Reste dormi, nou fer gate.

Zennzan, zennfi dan tou jatpat
Touletanto pou fer gamat:
Si tousala fer twa ere,
Reste dormi, nou fer gate.

(Translated by D.V)

ODE ON SOLITUDE

Happy the man, whose wish and care
A few paternal acres bound,
Content to breathe his native air,
In his own ground.

Whose herds with milk, whose fields with bread,
Whose flocks supply him with attire,
Whose trees in summer yield him shade,
In winter fire.

Blest, who can unconcernedly find
Hours, day, and years slide soft away,
In health of body, peace of mine,
Quiet by day,

Sound sleep by night; study and ease,
Together mixed; sweet recreation;
And innocence, which most does please,
With meditation.

Thus let me live, unseen, unknown;
Thus unlamented let me die,
Steal from the world, and not a stone
Tell where I lie.
(ALEXANDER POPE)

Li bien ere sa dimoun ki
Posed zis enn tibout teren
Ki donn lavi, nouri lespri,
Anpes gagn fen.

Troupo dile, karo dipen,
Mouton lalenn, bann pie lonbraz
Zot tou ansam fer li viv bien
San fer tapaz.

Li bien ere sa dimoun ki
Pa trouv letan glise ale
Parski so lekor ek lespri
Anbonnsante.

Somey profon, letid, lwazir
Annekilib; rekreasion
Ki pa malsen, ki fer plezir
Meditasion.

Alor matlo, fou mwa lape!
Les mo ale san simagre;
Zis disparet. Pa neseser
Zot amenn fler.

(Translated by D.V)

DEATH THE LEVELLER

The glories of our blood and state
Are shadows, not substantial things;
There is no armour against Fate;
Death lays his icy hand on kings:
Sceptre and Crown
Must tumble down,
And in the dust be equal made
With the poor crookèd scythe and spade.

Some men with swords may reap the field,
And plant fresh laurels where they kill:
But their strong nerves at last must yield;
They tame but one another still:
Early or late
They stoop to fate,
And must give up their murmuring breath
When they, pale captives, creep to death.

The garlands wither on your brow,
Then boast no more your mighty deeds!
Upon Death’s purple altar now
See where the victor-victim bleeds.
Your heads must come
To the cold tomb:
Only the actions of the just
Smell sweet and blossom in their dust.
(James Shirley)

LAMOR EGALITER

Disan gran fami, ran dan sosiete
Tousala maya, zis enn ilizion;
Pa kapav bare ler lamor koste;
Alafen lor tou li poz so glason.
Pouvwar ek grander
Pou grenn lor later;
Manz lapousier ar pios, laserp, marto.
Zame bliye sa, matlo mo matlo.

Ena servi zarm pou gagn promosion;
Zot plant zot pavyon kot finn fann disan.
Me zot gran kouraz li anperdision
E ant zot ena bel dezagreman.
Pa zordi-dime
Zot desann lor pie.
Zot respirasion koumans vinn bankal
Ziska ki zot rant dan pies foupamal.

Meday lor ou ches finn fini rouye;
Aret rakonte zistwar eroik.
Get dan kalimay! Mov par kantite
Mok sikse-defet bann oustad trazik.
Nou tou pou fini
Dan trou enfini.
Seki pou reste se zis nou bienfe
Ki gard so parfen kan tou pe brile.

(Translated by D.V)

A Song: “Men of England” 

BY PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY

Men of England, wherefore plough
For the lords who lay ye low?
Wherefore weave with toil and care
The rich robes your tyrants wear?

Wherefore feed and clothe and save
From the cradle to the grave
Those ungrateful drones who would
Drain your sweat—nay, drink your blood?

Wherefore, Bees of England, forge
Many a weapon, chain, and scourge,
That these stingless drones may spoil
The forced produce of your toil?

Have ye leisure, comfort, calm,
Shelter, food, love’s gentle balm?
Or what is it ye buy so dear
With your pain and with your fear?

The seed ye sow, another reaps;
The wealth ye find, another keeps;
The robes ye weave, another wears;
The arms ye forge, another bears.

Sow seed—but let no tyrant reap:
Find wealth—let no imposter heap:
Weave robes—let not the idle wear:
Forge arms—in your defence to bear.

Shrink to your cellars, holes, and cells—
In hall ye deck another dwells.
Why shake the chains ye wrought? Ye see
The steel ye tempered glance on ye.

With plough and spade and hoe and loom
Trace your grave and build your tomb
And weave your winding-sheet—till fair
England be your Sepulchre.

Travayer, kifer trime
Pou bann senier san pitie?
Kifer to pe rent to nam
Pou abiy tiran so fam?

Kifer to fourni konfor
E toultan ranpli kofor
Parazit san santiman
Ki kontan bwar to disan.

Mous dimiel, dir mwa kifer
To ranz lasenn, zarm lager
Ki permet los enpotan
Explwat prodwi to talan.

Eski to pe viv ere
Kouma ti dwatet ete?
Kifer to axepte pey
Ser pou enn lavi andey?

To seme, li rekolte;
To kree, li ramase;
To ranze, li pran pou li.
To fer zouti, li servi.

Seme, ‒ pou to prop zanfan;
Kree, ‒ pou to lavansman;
Ranze ‒ pou to avanse;
Fer zouti – pou to lape.

Ser-sere dan to ti nik
Pou lezot ki to fabrik
Konfor, zwisans alatrenn.
Kan to pou kas to lasenn?

Servi pios, servi zouti
Pou konstrir nouvo lavi;
Tras sime to lavenir:
Moman pou fer sa finn mir.

(Translated by D.V)

SONNET 43 BY ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING

How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.
I love thee to the depth and breadth and height
My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight
For the ends of Being and ideal Grace.
I love thee to the level of everyday’s
Most quiet need, by sun and candlelight.
I love thee freely, as men strive for Right,
I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise.
I love thee with the passion put to use
In my old griefs, and with my childhood’s faith;
I love thee with a love I seemed to lose
With my lost saints, – I love thee with the breath,
Smiles, tears, of all my life! – and if God choose,
I shall but love thee better after death.

Komie mo kontan twa? Les mo konte!
Mo lamour profon, gran ek ot kouma
Mo nam ki explor fenfon destine
Kot so prop lesans tous vizion Bramma.
Mo kontan twa dan aksion detaye
Lizour ek aswar, routinn ek extra –
Mo kontan twa san get mo lentere;
Mo kontan twa san rod okenn flafla.
Mo kontan twa ar saler mo koler;
Ar inosans dan lafwa enn zanfan;
Mo kontan twa ar lamour efemer
Bann ero tret – se twa ki mo kontan
Kan ge, kan tris, toultan – si Lesenier
Permet, lamour pou pli for kan mo mor.

(Translated by D.V)

 

SECTION 4

A SHORT PLAY IN ENGLISH AND MORISIEN

THE GULLING OF MALVOLIO (TWELFTH NIGHT)

Enter SIR TOBY BELCH and SIR ANDREW

SIR TOBY BELCH
Approach, Sir Andrew: not to be abed after midnight is to be up betimes; and ‘diluculo surgere,’ thou know’st,–
SIR ANDREW
Nay, my troth, I know not: but I know, to be up late is to be up late.
SIR TOBY BELCH
A false conclusion: I hate it as an unfilled can. To be up after midnight and to go to bed then, is early: so that to go to bed after midnight is to go to bed betimes. Does not our life consist of the four elements?
SIR ANDREW
Faith, so they say; but I think it rather consists of eating and drinking.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Thou’rt a scholar; let us therefore eat and drink. Marian, I say! a stoup of wine!
Enter Clown
SIR ANDREW
Here comes the fool, i’ faith.
Clown
How now, my hearts! did you never see the picture of ‘we three’?
SIR TOBY BELCH
Welcome, ass. Now let’s have a catch.
SIR ANDREW
By my troth, the fool has an excellent breast. I had rather than forty shillings I had such a leg, and so sweet a breath to sing, as the fool has. In sooth, thou wast in very gracious fooling last night, when thou spokest of Pigrogromitus, of the Vapians passing the equinoctial of Queubus: ’twas very good, i’ faith. I sent thee sixpence for thy leman: hadst it?
CLOWN
I did impeticos thy gratillity; for Malvolio’s nose is no whipstock: my lady has a white hand, and the Myrmidons are no bottle-ale houses.
SIR ANDREW
Excellent! why, this is the best fooling, when all is done. Now, a song.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Come on; there is sixpence for you: let’s have a song.
SIR ANDREW
There’s a testril of me too: if one knight give a–
CLOWN
Would you have a love-song, or a song of good life?
SIR TOBY BELCH
A love-song, a love-song.
SIR ANDREW
Ay, ay: I care not for good life.
CLOWN
[Sings]
O mistress mine, where are you roaming?
O, stay and hear; your true love’s coming,
That can sing both high and low:
Trip no further, pretty sweeting;
Journeys end in lovers meeting,
Every wise man’s son doth know.
SIR ANDREW
Excellent good, i’ faith.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Good, good.
Clown
[Sings]
What is love? ’tis not hereafter;
Present mirth hath present laughter;
What’s to come is still unsure:
In delay there lies no plenty;
Then come kiss me, sweet and twenty,
Youth’s a stuff will not endure.
SIR ANDREW
A mellifluous voice, as I am true knight.
SIR TOBY BELCH
A contagious breath.
SIR ANDREW
Very sweet and contagious, i’ faith.
SIR TOBY BELCH
To hear by the nose, it is dulcet in contagion. But shall we make the welkin dance indeed? shall we rouse the night-owl in a catch that will draw three souls out of one weaver? shall we do that?
SIR ANDREW
An you love me, let’s do’t: I am dog at a catch.
Clown
By’r lady, sir, and some dogs will catch well.
SIR ANDREW
Most certain. Let our catch be, ‘Thou knave.’
CLOWN
‘Hold thy peace, thou knave,’ knight? I shall be constrained in’t to call thee knave, knight.
SIR ANDREW
‘Tis not the first time I have constrained one to call me knave. Begin, fool: it begins ‘Hold thy peace.’
CLOWN
I shall never begin if I hold my peace.
SIR ANDREW
Good, i’ faith. Come, begin.
Catch sung
Enter MARIA
MARIA
What a caterwauling do you keep here! If my lady have not called up her steward Malvolio and bid him turn you out of doors, never trust me.
SIR TOBY BELCH
My lady’s a Cataian, we are politicians, Malvolio’s a Peg-a-Ramsey, and ‘Three merry men be we.’ Am not I consanguineous? am I not of her blood? Tillyvally. Lady!
Sings
‘There dwelt a man in Babylon, lady, lady!’
CLOWN
Beshrew me, the knight’s in admirable fooling.
SIR ANDREW
Ay, he does well enough if he be disposed, and so do I too: he does it with a better grace, but I do it more natural.
SIR TOBY BELCH
[Sings] ‘O, the twelfth day of December,’–
MARIA
For the love o’ God, peace!
Enter MALVOLIO
MALVOLIO
My masters, are you mad? or what are you? Have ye no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night? Do ye make an alehouse of my lady’s house, that ye squeak out your coziers’ catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons, nor time in you?
SIR TOBY BELCH
We did keep time, sir, in our catches. Sneck up!
MALVOLIO
Sir Toby, I must be round with you. My lady bade me tell you, that, though she harbours you as her kinsman, she’s nothing allied to your disorders. If you can separate yourself and your misdemeanors, you are welcome to the house; if not, an it would please you to take leave of her, she is very willing to bid you farewell.
SIR TOBY BELCH
‘Farewell, dear heart, since I must needs be gone.’
MARIA
Nay, good Sir Toby.
CLOWN
‘His eyes do show his days are almost done.’
MALVOLIO
Is’t even so?
SIR TOBY BELCH
‘But I will never die.’
CLOWN
Sir Toby, there you lie.
MALVOLIO
This is much credit to you.
SIR TOBY BELCH
‘Shall I bid him go?’
CLOWN
‘What an if you do?’
SIR TOBY BELCH
‘Shall I bid him go, and spare not?’
CLOWN
‘O no, no, no, no, you dare not.’
SIR TOBY BELCH
Out o’ tune, sir: ye lie. Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more cakes and ale?
CLOWN
Yes, by Saint Anne, and ginger shall be hot i’ the mouth too.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Thou’rt i’ the right. Go, sir, rub your chain with crumbs. A stoup of wine, Maria!
MALVOLIO
Mistress Mary, if you prized my lady’s favour at any thing more than contempt, you would not give means for this uncivil rule: she shall know of it, by this hand.
Exit
MARIA
Go shake your ears.
SIR ANDREW
‘Twere as good a deed as to drink when a man’s a-hungry, to challenge him the field, and then to break promise with him and make a fool of him.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Do’t, knight: I’ll write thee a challenge: or I’ll deliver thy indignation to him by word of mouth.
MARIA
Sweet Sir Toby, be patient for tonight: since the youth of the count’s was today with thy lady, she is much out of quiet. For Monsieur Malvolio, let me alone with him: if I do not gull him into a nayword, and make him a common recreation, do not think I have wit enough to lie straight in my bed: I know I can do it.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Possess us, possess us; tell us something of him.
MARIA
Marry, sir, sometimes he is a kind of puritan.
SIR ANDREW
O, if I thought that I’ld beat him like a dog!
SIR TOBY BELCH
What, for being a puritan? Thy exquisite reason, dear knight?
SIR ANDREW
I have no exquisite reason for’t, but I have reason good enough.
MARIA
The devil a puritan that he is, or any thing constantly, but a time-pleaser; an affectioned ass, that cons state without book and utters it by great swarths: the best persuaded of himself, so crammed, as he thinks, with excellencies, that it is his grounds of faith that all that look on him love him; and on that vice in him will my revenge find notable cause to work.
SIR TOBY BELCH
What wilt thou do?
MARIA
I will drop in his way some obscure epistles of love; wherein, by the colour of his beard, the shape of his leg, the manner of his gait, the expressure of his eye, forehead, and complexion, he shall find himself most feelingly personated. I can write very like my lady your niece: on a forgotten matter we
can hardly make distinction of our hands.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Excellent! I smell a device.
SIR ANDREW
I have’t in my nose too.
SIR TOBY BELCH
He shall think, by the letters that thou wilt drop, that they come from my niece, and that she’s in love with him.
MARIA
My purpose is, indeed, a horse of that colour.
SIR ANDREW
And your horse now would make him an ass.
MARIA
Ass, I doubt not.
SIR ANDREW
O, ’twill be admirable!
MARIA
Sport royal, I warrant you: I know my physic will work with him. I will plant you two, and let the fool make a third, where he shall find the letter: observe his construction of it. For this night, to bed, and dream on the event. Farewell.
Exit
SIR TOBY BELCH
Good night, Penthesilea.
SIR ANDREW
Before me, she’s a good wench.
SIR TOBY BELCH
She’s a beagle, true-bred, and one that adores me: what o’ that?
SIR ANDREW
I was adored once too.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Let’s to bed, knight. Thou hadst need send for more money.
SIR ANDREW
If I cannot recover your niece, I am a foul way out.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Send for money, knight: if thou hast her not i’ the end, call me cut.
SIR ANDREW
If I do not, never trust me, take it how you will.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Come, come, I’ll go burn some sack; ’tis too late to go to bed now: come, knight; come, knight.
Exeunt

OLIVIA’s garden.
Enter SIR TOBY BELCH, SIR ANDREW, and FABIAN
SIR TOBY BELCH
Come thy ways, Signior Fabian.
FABIAN
Nay, I’ll come: if I lose a scruple of this sport, let me be boiled to death with melancholy.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Wouldst thou not be glad to have the niggardly rascally sheep-biter come by some notable shame?
FABIAN
I would exult, man: you know, he brought me out o’ favour with my lady about a bear-baiting here.
SIR TOBY BELCH
To anger him we’ll have the bear again; and we will fool him black and blue: shall we not, Sir Andrew?
SIR ANDREW
An we do not, it is pity of our lives.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Here comes the little villain.
Enter MARIA
How now, my metal of India!
MARIA
Get ye all three into the box-tree: Malvolio’s coming down this walk: he has been yonder i’ the sun practising behavior to his own shadow this half hour: observe him, for the love of mockery; for I know this letter will make a contemplative idiot of him. Close, in the name of jesting! Lie thou there,
(Throws down a letter) for here comes the trout that must be caught with tickling.
Exit
Enter MALVOLIO
MALVOLIO
‘Tis but fortune; all is fortune. Maria once told me she did affect me: and I have heard herself come thus near, that, should she fancy, it should be one of my complexion. Besides, she uses me with a more exalted respect than any one else that follows her. What should I think on’t?
SIR TOBY BELCH
Here’s an overweening rogue!
FABIAN
O, peace! Contemplation makes a rare turkey-cock of him: how he jets under his advanced plumes!
SIR ANDREW
‘Slight, I could so beat the rogue!
SIR TOBY BELCH
Peace, I say.
MALVOLIO
To be Count Malvolio!
SIR TOBY BELCH
Ah, rogue!
SIR ANDREW
Pistol him, pistol him.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Peace, peace!
MALVOLIO
There is example for’t; the lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe.
SIR ANDREW
Fie on him, Jezebel!
FABIAN
O, peace! now he’s deeply in: look how imagination blows him.
MALVOLIO
Having been three months married to her, sitting in my state,–
SIR TOBY BELCH
O, for a stone-bow, to hit him in the eye!
MALVOLIO
Calling my officers about me, in my branched velvet gown; having come from a day-bed, where I have left Olivia sleeping,–
SIR TOBY BELCH
Fire and brimstone!
FABIAN
O, peace, peace!
MALVOLIO
And then to have the humour of state; and after a demure travel of regard, telling them I know my place as I would they should do theirs, to for my kinsman Toby,–
SIR TOBY BELCH
Bolts and shackles!
FABIAN
O peace, peace, peace! now, now.
MALVOLIO
Seven of my people, with an obedient start, make out for him: I frown the while; and perchance wind up watch, or play with my–some rich jewel. Toby approaches; courtesies there to me,–
SIR TOBY BELCH
Shall this fellow live?
FABIAN
Though our silence be drawn from us with cars, yet peace.
MALVOLIO
I extend my hand to him thus, quenching my familiar smile with an austere regard of control,–
SIR TOBY BELCH
And does not Toby take you a blow o’ the lips then?
MALVOLIO
Saying, ‘Cousin Toby, my fortunes having cast me on your niece give me this prerogative of speech,’–
SIR TOBY BELCH
What, what?
MALVOLIO
‘You must amend your drunkenness.’
SIR TOBY BELCH
Out, scab!
FABIAN
Nay, patience, or we break the sinews of our plot.
MALVOLIO
‘Besides, you waste the treasure of your time with a foolish knight,’–
SIR ANDREW
That’s me, I warrant you.
MALVOLIO
‘One Sir Andrew,’–
SIR ANDREW
I knew ’twas I; for many do call me fool.
MALVOLIO
What employment have we here?
Taking up the letter
FABIAN
Now is the woodcock near the gin.
SIR TOBY BELCH
O, peace! and the spirit of humour intimate reading aloud to him!
MALVOLIO
By my life, this is my lady’s hand these be her very C’s, her U’s and her T’s and thus makes she her
great P’s. It is, in contempt of question, her hand.
SIR ANDREW
Her C’s, her U’s and her T’s: why that?
MALVOLIO
[Reads] ‘To the unknown beloved, this, and my good wishes:’–her very phrases! By your leave, wax.
Soft! and the impressure her Lucrece, with which she uses to seal: ’tis my lady. To whom should this be?
FABIAN
This wins him, liver and all.
MALVOLIO
[Reads]
Jove knows I love: But who?
Lips, do not move;
No man must know.
‘No man must know.’ What follows? the numbers altered! ‘No man must know:’ if this should be thee, Malvolio?
SIR TOBY BELCH
Marry, hang thee, brock!
MALVOLIO
[Reads]
I may command where I adore;
But silence, like a Lucrece knife,
With bloodless stroke my heart doth gore:
M, O, A, I, doth sway my life.
FABIAN
A fustian riddle!
SIR TOBY BELCH
Excellent wench, say I.
MALVOLIO
‘M, O, A, I, doth sway my life.’ Nay, but first, let me see, let me see, let me see.
FABIAN
What dish o’ poison has she dressed him!
SIR TOBY BELCH
And with what wing the staniel cheques at it!
MALVOLIO
‘I may command where I adore.’ Why, she may command me: I serve her; she is my lady. Why, this is evident to any formal capacity; there is no obstruction in this: and the end,–what should that alphabetical position portend? If I could make that resemble something in me,–Softly! M, O, A, I,–
SIR TOBY BELCH
O, ay, make up that: he is now at a cold scent.
FABIAN
Sowter will cry upon’t for all this, though it be as rank as a fox.
MALVOLIO
M,–Malvolio; M,–why, that begins my name.
FABIAN
Did not I say he would work it out? the cur is excellent at faults.
MALVOLIO
M,–but then there is no consonancy in the sequel; that suffers under probation A should follow but O does.
FABIAN
And O shall end, I hope.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Ay, or I’ll cudgel him, and make him cry O!
MALVOLIO
And then I comes behind.
FABIAN
Ay, an you had any eye behind you, you might see more detraction at your heels than fortunes before you.
MALVOLIO
M, O, A, I; this simulation is not as the former: and yet, to crush this a little, it would bow to me, for every one of these letters are in my name. Soft! here follows prose.
Reads
‘If this fall into thy hand, revolve. In my stars I am above thee; but be not afraid of greatness: some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon ’em. Thy Fates open their hands; let thy blood and spirit embrace them; and, to inure thyself to what thou art like to be, cast thy humble slough and appear fresh. Be opposite with a kinsman, surly with servants; let thy tongue tang arguments of state; put thyself into the trick of singularity: she thus advises thee that sighs for thee. Remember who commended thy yellow stockings, and wished to see thee ever cross-gartered: I say, remember. Go to, thou art made, if thou desirest to be so; if not, let me see thee a steward still, the fellow of servants, and not worthy to touch Fortune’s fingers. Farewell.
She that would alter services with thee, THE FORTUNATE-UNHAPPY.’

Daylight and champaign discovers not more: this is open. I will be proud, I will read politic authors, I will baffle Sir Toby, I will wash off gross acquaintance, I will be point-devise the very man. I do not now fool myself, to let imagination jade me; for every reason excites to this, that my lady loves me. She did commend my yellow stockings of late, she did praise my leg being cross-gartered; and in this she manifests herself to my love, and with a kind of injunction drives me to these habits of her liking. I thank my stars I am happy. I will be strange, stout, in yellow stockings, and cross-gartered, even with the swiftness of putting on. Jove and my stars be praised! Here is yet a
postscript.

Reads
‘Thou canst not choose but know who I am. If thou entertainest my love, let it appear in thy smiling; thy smiles become thee well; therefore in my presence still smile, dear my sweet, I prithee.’ Jove, I thank thee: I will smile; I will do everything that thou wilt have me.
Exit
FABIAN
I will not give my part of this sport for a pension of thousands to be paid from the Sophy.
SIR TOBY BELCH
I could marry this wench for this device.
SIR ANDREW
So could I too.
SIR TOBY BELCH
And ask no other dowry with her but such another jest.
SIR ANDREW
Nor I neither.
FABIAN
Here comes my noble gull-catcher.
Re-enter MARIA
SIR TOBY BELCH
Wilt thou set thy foot o’ my neck?
SIR ANDREW
Or o’ mine either?
SIR TOBY BELCH
Shall I play my freedom at traytrip, and become thy bond-slave?
SIR ANDREW
I’ faith, or I either?
SIR TOBY BELCH
Why, thou hast put him in such a dream, that when the image of it leaves him he must run mad.
MARIA
Nay, but say true; does it work upon him?
SIR TOBY BELCH
Like aqua-vitae with a midwife.
MARIA
If you will then see the fruits of the sport, mark his first approach before my lady: he will come to her in yellow stockings, and ’tis a colour she abhors, and cross-gartered, a fashion she detests; and he will smile upon her, which will now be so unsuitable to her disposition, being addicted to a melancholy as she is, that it cannot but turn him into a notable contempt. If you will see it, follow
me.
SIR TOBY BELCH
To the gates of Tartar, thou most excellent devil of wit!
SIR ANDREW
I’ll make one too.
Exeunt

OLIVIA’s house.
Enter SIR TOBY BELCH, SIR ANDREW, and FABIAN

SIR ANDREW
No, faith, I’ll not stay a jot longer.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Thy reason, dear venom, give thy reason.
FABIAN
You must needs yield your reason, Sir Andrew.
SIR ANDREW
Marry, I saw your niece do more favours to the count’s serving-man than ever she bestowed upon me; I saw’t i’ the orchard.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Did she see thee the while, old boy? tell me that.
SIR ANDREW
As plain as I see you now.
FABIAN
This was a great argument of love in her toward you.
SIR ANDREW
‘Slight, will you make an ass o’ me?
FABIAN
I will prove it legitimate, sir, upon the oaths of judgment and reason.
SIR TOBY BELCH
And they have been grand-jury-men since before Noah was a sailor.
FABIAN
She did show favour to the youth in your sight only to exasperate you, to awake your dormouse valour, to put fire in your heart and brimstone in your liver. You should then have accosted her; and with some excellent jests, fire-new from the mint, you should have banged the youth into dumbness. This was looked for at your hand, and this was balked: the double gilt of this opportunity you let time wash off, and you are now sailed into the north of my lady’s opinion; where you will hang like an icicle on a Dutchman’s beard, unless you do redeem it by some laudable attempt either of valour or policy.
SIR ANDREW
An’t be any way, it must be with valour; for policy I hate: I had as lief be a Brownist as a politician.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Why, then, build me thy fortunes upon the basis of valour. Challenge me the count’s youth to fight with him; hurt him in eleven places: my niece shall take note of it; and assure thyself, there is no love-broker in the world can more prevail in man’s commendation with woman than report of valour.
FABIAN
There is no way but this, Sir Andrew.
SIR ANDREW
Will either of you bear me a challenge to him?
SIR TOBY BELCH
Go, write it in a martial hand; be curst and brief; it is no matter how witty, so it be eloquent and fun of invention: taunt him with the licence of ink: if thou thou’st him some thrice, it shall not be amiss; and as many lies as will lie in thy sheet of paper, although the sheet were big enough for the bed of Ware in England, set ’em down: go, about it. Let there be gall enough in thy ink, though thou write with a goose-pen, no matter: about it.
SIR ANDREW
Where shall I find you?
SIR TOBY BELCH
We’ll call thee at the cubiculo: go.
Exit SIR ANDREW
FABIAN
This is a dear manikin to you, Sir Toby.
SIR TOBY BELCH
I have been dear to him, lad, some two thousand strong, or so.
FABIAN
We shall have a rare letter from him: but you’ll not deliver’t?
SIR TOBY BELCH
Never trust me, then; and by all means stir on the youth to an answer. I think oxen and wainropes cannot hale them together. For Andrew, if he were opened, and you find so much blood in his liver as will clog the foot of a flea, I’ll eat the rest of the anatomy.
FABIAN
And his opposite, the youth, bears in his visage no great presage of cruelty.
Enter MARIA
SIR TOBY BELCH
Look, where the youngest wren of nine comes.
MARIA
If you desire the spleen, and will laugh yourself into stitches, follow me. Yond gull Malvolio is turned heathen, a very renegado; for there is no Christian, that means to be saved by believing rightly, can ever believe such impossible passages of grossness. He’s in yellow stockings.
SIR TOBY BELCH
And cross-gartered?
MARIA
Most villanously; like a pedant that keeps a school i’ the church. I have dogged him, like his murderer. He does obey every point of the letter that I dropped to betray him: he does smile his face into more lines than is in the new map with the augmentation of the Indies: you have not seen such a thing as ’tis. I can hardly forbear hurling things at him. I know my lady will strike him: if she do, he’ll smile and take’t for a great favour.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Come, bring us, bring us where he is.
Exeunt

OLIVIA’s garden.
Enter OLIVIA and MARIA
OLIVIA
Where is Malvolio? he is sad and civil,
And suits well for a servant with my fortunes:
Where is Malvolio?
MARIA
He’s coming, madam; but in very strange manner. He is, sure, possessed, madam.
OLIVIA
Why, what’s the matter? does he rave?
MARIA
No. madam, he does nothing but smile: your ladyship were best to have some guard about you, if he come; for, sure, the man is tainted in’s wits.
OLIVIA
Go call him hither.
Exit MARIA
I am as mad as he,
If sad and merry madness equal be.
Re-enter MARIA, with MALVOLIO
How now, Malvolio!
MALVOLIO
Sweet lady, ho, ho.
OLIVIA
Smilest thou?
I sent for thee upon a sad occasion.
MALVOLIO
Sad, lady! I could be sad: this does make some obstruction in the blood, this cross-gartering; but what of that? if it please the eye of one, it is with me as the very true sonnet is, ‘Please one, and please all.’
OLIVIA
Why, how dost thou, man? what is the matter with thee?
MALVOLIO
Not black in my mind, though yellow in my legs. It did come to his hands, and commands shall be executed: I think we do know the sweet Roman hand.
OLIVIA
Wilt thou go to bed, Malvolio?
MALVOLIO
To bed! ay, sweet-heart, and I’ll come to thee.
OLIVIA
God comfort thee! Why dost thou smile so and kiss thy hand so oft?
MARIA
How do you, Malvolio?
MALVOLIO
At your request! yes; nightingales answer daws.
MARIA
Why appear you with this ridiculous boldness before my lady?
MALVOLIO
‘Be not afraid of greatness:’ ’twas well writ.
OLIVIA
What meanest thou by that, Malvolio?
MALVOLIO
‘Some are born great,’–
OLIVIA
Ha!
MALVOLIO
‘Some achieve greatness,’–
OLIVIA
What sayest thou?
MALVOLIO
‘And some have greatness thrust upon them.’
OLIVIA
Heaven restore thee!
MALVOLIO
‘Remember who commended thy yellow stocking s,’–
OLIVIA
Thy yellow stockings!
MALVOLIO
‘And wished to see thee cross-gartered.’
OLIVIA
Cross-gartered!
MALVOLIO
‘Go to thou art made, if thou desirest to be so;’–
OLIVIA
Am I made?
MALVOLIO
‘If not, let me see thee a servant still.’
OLIVIA
Why, this is very midsummer madness.
Enter Servant
SERVANT
Madam, the young gentleman of the Count Orsino’s is returned: I could hardly entreat him back: he attends your ladyship’s pleasure.
OLIVIA
I’ll come to him.
Exit Servant
Good Maria, let this fellow be looked to. Where’s my cousin Toby? Let some of my people have a special care of him: I would not have him miscarry for the half of my dowry.
Exeunt OLIVIA and MARIA
MALVOLIO
O, ho! do you come near me now? no worse man than Sir Toby to look to me! This concurs directly with the letter: she sends him on purpose, that I may appear stubborn to him; for she incites me to that in the letter. ‘Cast thy humble slough,’ says she; ‘be opposite with a kinsman, surly with servants; let thy tongue tang with arguments of state; put thyself into the trick of singularity;’ and consequently sets down the manner how; as, a sad face, a reverend carriage, a slow tongue, in the habit of some sir of note, and so forth. I have limed her; but it is Jove’s doing, and Jove make me thankful! And when she went away now, ‘Let this fellow be looked to:’ fellow! not Malvolio, nor
after my degree, but fellow. Why, every thing adheres together, that no dram of a scruple, no scruple of a scruple, no obstacle, no incredulous or unsafe circumstance–What can be said? Nothing that can be can come between me and the full prospect of my hopes. Well, Jove, not I, is the doer of this, and he is to be thanked.
Re-enter MARIA, with SIR TOBY BELCH and FABIAN
SIR TOBY BELCH
Which way is he, in the name of sanctity? If all the devils of hell be drawn in little, and Legion himself possessed him, yet I’ll speak to him.
FABIAN
Here he is, here he is. How is’t with you, sir? how is’t with you, man?
MALVOLIO
Go off; I discard you: let me enjoy my private: go off.
MARIA
Lo, how hollow the fiend speaks within him! did not I tell you? Sir Toby, my lady prays you to have a care of him.
MALVOLIO
Ah, ha! does she so?
SIR TOBY BELCH
Go to, go to; peace, peace; we must deal gently with him: let me alone. How do you, Malvolio? how is’t with you? What, man! defy the devil: consider, he’s an enemy to mankind.
MALVOLIO
Do you know what you say?
MARIA
La you, an you speak ill of the devil, how he takes it at heart! Pray God, he be not bewitched!
FABIAN
Carry his water to the wise woman.
MARIA
Marry, and it shall be done to-morrow morning, if I live. My lady would not lose him for more than I’ll say.
MALVOLIO
How now, mistress!
MARIA
O Lord!
SIR TOBY BELCH
Prithee, hold thy peace; this is not the way: do you not see you move him? let me alone with him.
FABIAN
No way but gentleness; gently, gently: the fiend is rough, and will not be roughly used.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Why, how now, my bawcock! how dost thou, chuck?
MALVOLIO
Sir!
SIR TOBY BELCH
Ay, Biddy, come with me. What, man! ’tis not for gravity to play at cherry-pit with Satan: hang him, foul collier!
MARIA
Get him to say his prayers, good Sir Toby, get him to pray.
MALVOLIO
My prayers, minx!
MARIA
No, I warrant you, he will not hear of godliness.
MALVOLIO
Go, hang yourselves all! you are idle shallow things: I am not of your element: you shall know more hereafter.
Exit
SIR TOBY BELCH
Is’t possible?
FABIAN
If this were played upon a stage now, I could condemn it as an improbable fiction.
SIR TOBY BELCH
His very genius hath taken the infection of the device, man.
MARIA
Nay, pursue him now, lest the device take air and taint.
FABIAN
Why, we shall make him mad indeed.
MARIA
The house will be the quieter.
SIR TOBY BELCH
Come, we’ll have him in a dark room and bound. My niece is already in the belief that he’s mad: we may carry it thus, for our pleasure and his penance…

VERSION MORISIEN 
MALVOLIO MAY DAN LAK
(ENN EXTRE LERWA BWAR)
TWELFTH NIGHT SHAKESPEARE – TRADIKSION/ADAPTASION PAR D.V

Enn lasam dan lakaz olivia; Sir Toby ek Sir Anndrou rantre
SIR TOBY
Vini Sir Anndrou. Si to pa ankor al dormi apre minwi, savedir to finn lev boner. Early bird catches the worm. Bravo!
SIR ANNDROU
Kaajani! Toultan mo ti kwar lev tar donn retar.
SIR TOBY
Erer kamarad! Erer! Rezonnman rann kouma enn ver vid. Al dormi apre minwi se al dormi boner gramaten. Komprenndo! Dan lavi ena kat eleman.
SIR ANNDROU
Laverite vre. Anverite dan lavi ena zis de: manze ek bwar.
SIR TOBY
To enn fizolof! Anou manze-bwar. (Li kriye for) Mariya, amenn enn brok diven.
Mangann rantre
SIR ANNDROU
Ala jalsa douniya!
MANGANN
Eh mo de koko, anou fer enn triyo.
SIR TOBY
Vini, vini, vini, mo fouka. Bat enn sawal.
SIR ANNDROU
Vre sa. Li sant bien. Olie pitay mo ti pou prefer ena so zoli lazam ek so zoli lavwa. Yer swar to ti fer mwa bien riye ar to jok lor bakanal mont souval, lor karay so dan sodier, lor cholo ki bwar diven kaspalto. Mo ti donn twa enn zoli gousaz pou to laryaz, pa vre.
MANGANN
J’ai empoché votre generosité. Nene Malvolio pa enn dekapsilater; mo trannsenk met legan e mo dalon pa frekant mezon.
SIR ANNDROU
Zoli jok, zoli jok! Aster sant enn sante.
MANGANN
Zot ole enn sante moral ousa sante lamour?
SIR ANNDROU
Sante lamour. Moral rann!
MANGANN
Kas gouyav baba, pa tini-tini
Letan pa atann personn:
Samem sa fler ki pe riye zordi
Dime, dime pou riy zonn.

Lerwa soley, lalanp parasol ble
Amizir li mont lao
So dife refrwadi, so ler vinn pre
Pou tranp lasann dan dilo.
SIR ANNDROU
Vava!
SIR TOBY
Alime dife!
MANGANN
Kan bann zenes zot dife ankor for
Lavi nisa, jos partou;
Me ler laz rantre, laflam pe al mor
Freser liver bous bann trou.

Pa fer to timid baba, chom lavi;
Tank to kapav, gout enn gous
Parski baba, kan to fri finn fletri
Fini! Pa pou’ena repous.
SIR ANDROU
Enn lavwa dimiel!
SIR TOBY
Alenn pouri!
SIR ANNDROU
Wi, wi! Dimiel pouri.
SIR TOBY
Si servi nene, li sant kouma dimiel fermante. Anou fer lesiel tranble. Lev makanbo ziska sovsori boure. To do or not to do, that is the question.
SIR ANNDROU
Anou fer. Mo kouma lisien dan lamizik
MANGANN
Mo toutou zap de ton anba bef.
SIR ANNDROU
Foul laverite! Nou sant ‘Gopia’.
MANGANN
Choupchap gopia. To fer mwa apel twa gopia.
SIR ANNDROU
Pa timan nean! Dimoun kontan apel mwa gopia. Avoy lamizik. Li koumanse: ‘Choupchap’.
MANGANN
Kouma pou koumanse e fer choupchap anmemtan?
SIR ANNDROU
Pa fer fos Mangann. Larg sa lavwa la.
Zot sante, danse
Mariya rantre
MARIYA
Aret sa tapaz la. Si Madam pa finn fini dimann Malvolio vinn aret zot lelan, mo pa apel Mariya.
SIR TOBY
(Li sant enn melanz) Ki ti balye la, madam lonorab ki ti balye la. Kaise belona do koko, kaise belona. Bay Abou trap to direksion, vir to manivel. Dil deke deko, dil deke deko. Donn mwa de boutey bay Kedou, Dan Lenn at ana, a Moris bahout atcha…
SIR ANNDROU
Sir Toby, ou enn zeni mizikal, parey kouma mwa.
MARIYA
Trankil vouzot. Li pe vini.
Malvolio rantre
MALVOLIO
Mesie, zot latet pa bon? Kot zot kwar zot ete? Lespri pa bon; manier finn fonn? Yap-yap, fer tapaz kouma soular dan tavern? Zot pa respe dimoun ki bizen dormi? Okenn respe pou ton ek tan!
SIR TOBY
Fos! Nou gard ton ek tan kan nou sante. Grate ale!
MALVOLIO
Sir toby, les mo dir ou kare-kare: Madam axepte ou isi parski zot fami me li pa dakor ar ou move manier. Si ou kapav dir orevwar ou move manier, bien bon. Ou kapav reste. Sinon bay-bay Sir Toby.
SIR TOBY
(Li sante) Salam, bay-bay, avidesein, sayonara;
Salam, bay-bay, avidesein, sayonara;
Salam, bay-bay, avidesein, sayonara …
MARIYA
Tini-tini Sir Toby!
MANGANN
Larim dan nene, dilo dan lizie,
Laz pe rantre, li ganase.
MALVILIO
Abon!
SIR TOBY
Pa kwar mo pe mor, do baba,
Pa kwar mo pe mor.
MANGANN
Koze mo mam, koze!
MALVOLIO
Mo pou raport zot.
SIR TOBY
Mo fann ar li?
MANGANN
Fann ar li. Fann ar li.
SIR TOBY
Ki to dir? Ki to kwar to’ete? To zis enn anplwaye isi. Mwa mo tonton Madam la. Parski to deklar piriten, dapre twa, lemonn bizen aret amize.
MANGANN
Sa ki apel zoli koze!
Li sorti
SIR TOBY
Malvolio, al okip to okipasion e fou mwa lape. Mariya, amenn enn brok diven.
MALVOLIO
Si ou respekte Madam, ou pa gagn drwa, Mariya, ankouraz dezord dan so lakaz. Mo oblize raport ou.
Li sorti
MARIYA
Al denge!
SIR ANNDROU
Mo bien anvi bwar kan mo gagn fen; chalenj li pou enn diel, refiz lager e boufonn li.
SIR TOBY
Fer sa. Drafte enn chalenj e mo pou livre to let momem, viva-voce.
MARIYA
Sir Toby, tini-tini. Depi vizit sa zenn Misie ki travay pou Dik Orsino, Madam koumadir finn manz mous-zonn. Les Mister Malvolio dan mo lame. Si mo pa reysi tourn li anbourik e fer tou dimoun boufonn li, mo pa apel Mariya.
SIR TOBY
Dir mwa tou.
MARIYA
Zot kone li kontan deklar piriten?
SIR ANNDROU
Si mo ti kone, mo ti pou kas so lagel.
SIR TOBY
Akoz li enn piriten? Donn to rezon.
SIR ANNDROU
Peyna rezon me mo pou fer li kanmem.
MARIYA
Enn move zokris sa. Enn roderdeler, enn roder bout, enn boufon ki aprann bel-bel expresion par ker e servi zot andeor kontex. Li kwar li enn terib, lerwa pa so kouzen; li kwar ki tou fam ki get so vizaz tom amoure ar li. Mo pou servi sa pou may li dan lak.
SIR TOBY
Kimanier?
MARIYA
Mo pou ekrir enn biye dou ki dekrir ‘so bote’. Mo pou imit lekritir Madam. Fasil sa. Mo fer Malvolio gagn let la. Mo sir li pou persiade ki Madam amoure ar li.
SIR TOBY
Mo pe santi lay.
SIR ANNDROU
Lay dan mo nene.
MARIYA
Benker sek, Malvolio rant dan latrap. Mo pou dir zot kot zot bizen kasiet pou get tamasa. Prepar zot pou trap vant, riye. Al dormi, dime nou regle kont. Salam
Li sorti
SIR TOBY
Bonswar O Kamasoutra!
SIR ANNDROU
Enn bay 35!
SIR TOBY
Li enn ras apar e li ador mwa.
SIR ANNDROU
Mo ti konn sa enn fwa.
SIR TOBY
Finn ler pou al kaysou. Sevalie Anndrou, pitay pe manke.
SIR ANNDROU
Si mo pa may ou nies mo pou fat net.
SIR TOBY
Avoy fizon. Si to pa gagn li, apel mwa trou may.
SIR ANNDROU
Si mo pa dir sa, mwa mo enn trou may.
SIR TOBY
Tro tar pou al dormi. Ena enn boutey dan mo lasam. To vini?
Zot sorti

LELANDIME; DAN ZARDEN OLIVIA

Sir Toby, Sir Anndrou ek Fabien rantre
SIR TOBY
Ou vinn ar nou Misie Fabien?
FABIEN
Pa manti! Pa kapav rat sa natak la.
SIR TOBY
Ou dakor ki sa lisien la bizen pey so pese zordi?
FABIEN
Mo foul dakor. Sa koson la finn raport mwa ar Madam Olivia ki aster refiz koz ar mwa.
SIR TOBY
Pou fer li vwar, nou fer plis ki avan. Pa vre Sir Anndrou?
SIR ANNDROU
Sinon nou ki lisien-koson.
SIR TOBY
Ala mo lagam souna vini!
Mariya rantre
Ki li dir, joyau de la couronne?
MARIYA
Ale, al kasiet deryer banbou. Malvolio pe vinn par isi. Pandan enn demi-er li ti dibout dan soley pou admir silouet so lonbraz. Yam li bien si zot kontan enn bon jok. Sa let la, mo sir, pou fer li kwar limem katalog mannken. Kasiet vit. Sinon zot kas lakle.
Trwa zom la al kasiet
Fer to louvraz mo baba (li poz let la anba). Ala li pe vini, zibie ki kontan siro.
Li sorti
Malvolio rantre
MALVOLIO
Li dan mo desten, peyna lot. Enn fwa Mariya ti dir mwa ki li ena enn feb pou mwa e limem ti fer mwa konpran ki si zame li tonbe, kikenn kouma mwa pou fer li grene. Peyna dout ki li tret mwa pli bien ki so bann lezot serviter. Ki so konklizion?
SIR TOBY
Sa ki apel mari toupe!
FABIEN
Trankil. Les li gonfle kouma tekwa Medenn.
SIR ANNDROU
Mo anvi kalot li.
FABIEN
Trankil vouzot.
MALVOLIO
Konklizion: mo pe vinn Kont Malvolio.
SIR TOBY
Eta koutta!
SIR ANNDROU
Biw, biw; mo touy li.
FABIEN
Shooouuut!
MALVOLIO
Ena presedan. Markiz Strache ti marye ar so mazordom.
SIR TOBY
Trap mwa sinon mo bez li.
FABIEN
Shooouuut! Get li, zokris la! Rev pe sarye li lao-lao.
MALVOLIO
Apre linndemiel, mo asiz lor fotey Kont Malvolio …
SIR TOBY
Pret mwa enn fizi!
MALVOLIO
Dan mo dezabiye velour brode; apre lasies; mo les Olivia repoze; mo apel mo bann ofisie …
SIR TOBY
Etae!
FABIEN
Shooouuuuuut!
MALVOLIO
Ar mo regar, mo fer zot konpran zot plas. Mo dir zot al sers Tonton Toby…
SIR TOBY
Baprrebap!
MALVOLIO
Dis zom al sers li, vini. Mo dir li ar enn regar sever. ‘Tonton, bizen fer bon garson. Aret fane.’
SIR TOBY
Li pa plati to nene?
FABIEN
Trankil. Zot pou kas lakle.
MALVOLIO
Apre, aret perdi letan ar sa enbesil Sir Anndrou.
SIR ANNDROU
Eh! Li pe koz mo koze.
MALVOLIO
Ki ete sa? Enn let. (li ramas let la) Lekritir Madam sa. Wi, samem so ‘q’; so ‘p’,’t’… ; sa so ‘s’, so ‘f’. Peyna lot. So lekritir sa.
SIR ANNDROU
Ki li pe zaze: so q, so p t, so s, so f? Sa latet pa bon.
MALVOLIO
(Li lir) ‘Pou mo bienneme chorri-chorri.’ Sa se so expresion favori. Ki ena ladan? Lanvlop pa sele. (li ouver let la, koumans lir)
Bondie kone kisannla mo lamour
Me kisannla, personn pa pou kone.
Samem sekre fer mwa soufer lanfer.
To kwar twa sa Malvolio?
SIR TOBY
Ala li mord lamson!
MALVOLIO
Mo sibaltern, limem mo mari.
Mo bizen bostayt akoz tilespri,
Soufer ansilans akoz partipri.
M.O.A.I, vinn ouver mo prizon.
FABIEN
Enn husband lak. Sirandann mont lor pie.
SIR TOBY
Sa fam la, peyna so segon!
MALVOLIO
M.O.A.I, vinn ouver mo prizon. Atansion! Pa prese. Mo sibaltern, limem mo mari. Mo so sibaltern ki li kontan. Li ole marye ar mwa. Li mo patronn; dime mo metress, mo fam. Me ki sa M.O.A.I? M kouma Malvolio; me O swiv olie A. Ti bizen fini par O me li fini par I.
SIR TOBY
Taler mo kraz to zafer, mo fer twa kriy AIO.
MALVOLIO
Madam bien malinn. Li finn met zot andezord pou kasiet sekre. He! Ena enn mesaz lor verso.
“Si to trouv sa let la, pa per. Mo kapav pli gran me mo pli piti. Ena ki ne gran; ena ki vinn gran; ena vinn gran parski pli gran fer li vinn gran. To nouvo desten pou fer twa vinn gran. Pa per, bes latet, fonse. Fann ar mo tonton; dres ar bann serviter; koz kouma sefdeta; sanz louk, sanz bataz. Met stoking zonn ar lase krwaze. Si to’le mont lor mwa (ayo ki mo pe dir?) servi lesel promosion. Sinon res enn sibaltern, enn senp serviter ki pa vo mo lestim. Salam. O Maitre, laisse moi devenir ta maîtresse.
BONERE-MALERE
Banane zanfan! Mesaz la kler. Mo pou lir Makiavel ek Mein Kampf. Mo pou imilie Sir Toby; mo pou aret frekant dimoun ordiner. Mo pou swiv preskripsion dan tou so detayman. Ase reve aster. Mo patronn kontan mwa. Lot zour li ti remark mo stoking zonn. Li ti felisit mwa lor manier mo krwaz lase lor mo stoking. Wey! Li ti pe deklar so lamour. Li ole ki mo abiy dan so manier. Mo ena enn gran lavenir. Zipiter ki mo bondie!
Ena enn P.S: (li lir)
“Mo sir to kone kisannla mwa. Si to aksepte mo lamour, mo’le ki to toultan fer sourir dan mo prezans parski to sourir kouma akter Boliholiwoud. Tomem mo gate-pouri. Pa aret sourir.”
Zipiter desinn mo sourir, fer li permanan.
Li sorti
SIR TOBY
Mo kapav marye ar sa fam la akoz so lespri.
SIR ANNDROU
Mo’si parey.
SIR TOBY
Mo refiz dot exepte enn lot plezantri koumsa.
SIR ANNDROU
Mo’si parey.
FABIEN
Ala li vini, Larenn Metdanlak.
Mariya rantre
SIR TOBY
Seki to dimande, mo donn twa.
SIR ANNDROU
Mo’si parey.
SIR TOBY
Atas mo lame-lipie, fer mwa to esklav.
SIR ANNDROU
Mo’si parey
SIR TOBY
Kan so somey kase e so rev fonn, pov jab la pou vinn fou.
MARIYA
Li finn glis lor diber?
SIR TOBY
Li finn aval labwet, lamson, diplon, bouson ek lame peser.
MARIYA
Aster nek gete ki pou ariv sef boufon. Madam deteste kouler zonn; lase krwaze se lamod depase; Madam pou agase ar so sourir sirtou ki li andey. Zot ole manz pistas, get sinema? Swiv mwa.
SIR TOBY
Kot to’le mo’ale, mo pou vinn ar twa. O lespri diabolo!
SIR ANNDROU
Mo’si parey.
Zot sorti

ENPE PLI TAR; ENN LASAM DAN LAKAZ OLIVIA

Sir Toby, Sir Anndrou ek Fabien rantre

SIR ANNDROU
Sir Toby, mo pe ale. Pa kapav reste.
SIR TOBY
Quefaire Sir Anndrou, quefaire?
SIR ANNDROU
Ou nies pe fer so alert ar mesaze Orsino. Li pa pran mwa kont.
SIR TOBY
Kouma to konn sa?
SIR ANNDROU
Mo finn trouve ar mo de lizie. Li fer sa okler.
FABIEN
Abon! Li fer sa pou provok ou, fer ou vinn agresif.
SIR TOBY
Samem. Mon cher chevalier, to pa trouve ki se konportman enn fam ki amoure. Li trouv to demars tro lan, tro timid. Li ole exit to zalouze, giji-giji to pasion, fer twa vinn plis antreprenan. Li anvi to montre to virilite. Kler sa! Chalenj tikouyon la; fer so kalson tranpe. Kan Olivia konn sa, so lamour pou twa pou vinn sitan for ki li pou grene dan to lebra.
FABIEN
Sir Toby ena rezon.
SIR ANNDROU
Kisannla pou livre mo chalenj?
SIR TOBY
Ekrir enn chalenj marsial, dekar lager. Zour li, titway li. Koz otan manti ki lider lopozision. Plis pa posib. Met lasid ek pwazon dan to lank.
SIR ANNDROU
Kot nou zwenn?
SIR TOBY
Dan mo lasam.
SIR ANNDROU
Oke!
Li sorti
FABIEN
Li ou poupet doukiya prefere, Sir Toby.
SIR TOBY
Mo prefer li parski li ed mwa pey tou mo det.
FABIEN
So let pou plito komik. Ou pa pou livre so makacha?
SIR TOBY
Non, mo pou pas pou boufon. Toulede kapon. Aster bizen fer toulede tranble. Fasil sa. Nou fer zot kwar ki ena lamor dan sa tranzaksion la.
Mariya rantre
SIR TOBY
Ala mo gato koko!
MARIYA
Si zot ole trap vant, riye, swiv mwa. Malvolio finn tas dan lakol. Misie la finn met stoking zonn ar lase kwaze e so sourir konstipe forse pe desinn lor so figir plis kontour ki map Moris ek Rodrig met ansam.
SIR TOBY
Nou’ale mama!
Zot sorti
ENPE PLI TAR
DAN ZARDEN OLIVIA
Olivia rantre, Mariya swiv li

OLIVIA
…Kot Malvolio? Li toultan tris ek sob –
Enn bon serviter pou mo kondision.
Kot Malvolio?
MARIYA
Li pe vini, Madam, me li bizar, vadire movezer lor li.
OLIVIA
Ki pe arive? Eski li koz drol?
MARIYA
Non, Madam me li pa aret fer sourir. Madam, mo konsey ou fer atansion. Mo kwar so latet finn gate.
OLIVIA
Al apel li.
Mariya sorti
Mo parey kouma li
Si foli tris ek foli ge parey.
Mariya retourne; li pe akonpagn Malvolio
Ki nouvel Malvolio?
MALVOLIO
Ah zoli Madam, zoli, zoli.
OLIVIA
To paret bien ge kan mwa mo bien tris.
MALVOLIO
Tris, Madam? Mo kapav bien tris sirtou ar sa lase krwaze ki pe blok sirkilasion disan? Me mo gard sourir. Mo sir mo sourir fer plezir, ou kone kisannla (li pez lizie ar li). (Li sante, li bouz so leren)
Ki li bizen mama ki li bizen
Donn li ki li ‘le.
OLIVIA
Ki pe ariv twa? To latet pa bon?
MALVOLIO
Mo latet bon; mo mole ki zonn. Mo’nn gagn mesaz la. Vos desirs sont des ordres. Ala li zoli sa lekritir la!
OLIVIA
Mo kwar to malad. Al lor lili.
MALVOLIO
Lor lili mo gate pouri? Wi, wi, wi. Je viens.
OLIVIA
Aret anbras to lame koumsa! Pov jab!
MARIYA
Ou bien Malvolio?
MALVOLIO
Hen, koumadir rosignol reponn korbo!
MARIYA
Kifer ou fer koumsa divan Madam?
MALVOLIO
‘Pa per seki gran!’ Bote parol!
OLIVIA
Ki to’le dir?
MALVOLIO
‘Ena ki ne gran – ‘
OLIVIA
Kisasasa!
MALVOLIO
‘Ena ki vinn gran – ‘
OLIVIA
Ki to pe rabase?
MALVOLIO
‘Ena vinn gran parski pli gran fer li vinn gran.’
OLIVIA
Bondie soulaz li.
MALVOLIO
‘Met stoking zonn ar lase krwaze.’
OLIVIA
Stoking zonn? Lase krwaze.
MALVOLIO
‘Si to’le mont lor mwa servi lesel promosion. Sinon res enn sibaltern, enn senp serviter ki pa vo mo lestim. Salam. O Maitre, laisse moi devenir ta maîtresse.’
OLIVIA
So katorz finn ventwit net!
Enn serviter rantre
SERVITER
Madam, zenn mesaze Dik Orsino finn revini. Li ensiste pou koz ar ou.
OLIVIA
Dir li atann, mo pe vini.
Serviter sorti
OLIVIA
Mo bon Mariya, okip sa boug la. Dimann Sir Toby ek detrwa lezot okip li. Mo pa’le okenn ditor ariv li.
Olivia ek Mariya sorti
MALVOLIO
Bann malang, pa koste ar mwa. Sir Toby finn gagn lord okip mwa. Kler sa. Li ole ki mo fann ar li. Aster mo bizen sanz mo bataz, mo mouyaz, mo fetaz; koz vokabiler gramatikal; servi ton noblesse oblige; mars kouma senatoryal. Wi, wi, wi, mo finn may li dan mo lak. Li pa pou sape. Ena lame bondie ladan. Li pa dir ‘okip Malvolio’ me ‘okip sa boug la’. ‘Sa boug la’ vedir seki li vedir. Pa sey konpran. Familiarity breeds contempt. Alalila! Samem so yes. Peyna dout. Mo tann laklos legliz pe sone. Kont Malvolio lor baz.
Sir Toby, Mariya ek Fabien rantre
SIR TOBY
Onom Tousakre, dir mwa kot li. Mem si tou bann demon lanfer pe asiz dan fon so nam, mo pou koz ar li pou ekzorsiz li.
FABIEN
Ala li la! Koman ou sava?
SIR TOBY
To sava mersi?
MALVOLIO
Pa deranz mwa, bann toutouk!
MARIYA
Lisifer pe koz ar ton gra. Li posede par malefik. Madam finn dir okyoupay li.
MALVOLIO
Pa manti je vous dis.
SIR TOBY
Dousman vouzot. Pa britaliz li. Misie Malvolio, pa les Belzebeb dominn ou. Pa bliye, limem ennmi limanite.
MALVOLIO
Aret rabase!
MARIYA
Trouve? Ler kritik Satan, misie la manga.
FABIEN
Fer Madam Titalber analiz so lirinn.
MARIYA
Dime mo okip sa.
SIR TOBY
Mo finn dir zot pa bouskil li. Les mo okip li.
FABIEN
Bizen servi douser. Belzebeb li violan. Akoz sa li rezet violans. Servi douser.
SIR TOBY
Kirr, kirr, kirr, kirr, kirr, mo ti poul apone la; denn, poul, kanar, lezwa, pentad enn lagren may, kisannla ti manz li; li rant dan so lakaz. Bon fanfan pa zwe ar bonom loulou. Lapli-soley, jab marye anba pie pima.
MARIYA
Fer li dir so lapriyer pou pous jab. Ayo li refize. Li finn pas bag ar jab. Li pou fini dan lanfer. Priye Sen Expedi, malere.
MALVOLIO
Ki lapriyer to pe koze. Olie blage, al fer louvraz.
MARIYA
Manman! Ala vantar la.
MALVOLIO
Sort divan mwa, zot tou. Zot pa mo grad, mo ran. Zot zis bann valtay. Al frekant zot bann, dimoun kouma zot!
Li sorti
SIR TOBY
Etae! Pa fasil, sa boug la.
FABIEN
Si mo ti get sa dan teat, mo ti pou dir zot pe ekzazere.
SIR TOBY
So latet finn gate net. Anou ferm li dan enn lasam nwar. Kouma mo nies panse ki li finn vinn pagla net, nou pou kapav pran nisa ar li.
Chombo li la, chombo li;
Chombo li, chombo li napa large.
Chombo li la, chombo li;
Chombo li, chombo li napa large.
Chombo li la, chombo li;
Chombo li, chombo li napa large.

RIDO

SECTION 5

STORIES IN ENGLISH AND MORISIEN

LITTLE SNOW-WHITE

BY THE BROTHERS GRIMM
TRANSLATED BY MARGARET TAYLOR (1884)

Once upon a time in the middle of winter, when the flakes of snow were falling like feathers from the sky, a queen sat at a window sewing, and the frame of the window was made of black ebony. And whilst she was sewing and looking out of the window at the snow, she pricked her finger with the needle, and three drops of blood fell upon the snow. And the red looked pretty upon the white snow, and she thought to herself, “Would that I had a child as white as snow, as red as blood, and as black as the wood of the window-frame.”

Soon after that she had a little daughter, who was as white as snow, and as red as blood, and her hair was as black as ebony; and she was therefore called Little Snow-white. And when the child was born, the Queen died.

After a year had passed the King took to himself another wife. She was a beautiful woman, but proud and haughty, and she could not bear that anyone else should surpass her in beauty. She had a wonderful looking-glass, and when she stood in front of it and looked at herself in it, and said —
“Looking-glass, Looking-glass, on the wall,
Who in this land is the fairest of all?”
the looking-glass answered —
“Thou, O Queen, art the fairest of all!”
Then she was satisfied, for she knew that the looking-glass spoke the truth.

But Snow-white was growing up, and grew more and more beautiful; and when she was seven years old she was as beautiful as the day, and more beautiful than the Queen herself. And once when the Queen asked her looking-glass —
“Looking-glass, Looking-glass, on the wall,
Who in this land is the fairest of all?” it answered —
“Thou art fairer than all who are here, Lady Queen.”
But more beautiful still is Snow-white, as I ween.”

Then the Queen was shocked, and turned yellow and green with envy. From that hour, whenever she looked at Snow-white, her heart heaved in her breast, she hated the girl so much.

And envy and pride grew higher and higher in her heart like a weed, so that she had no peace day or night. She called a huntsman, and said, “Take the child away into the forest; I will no longer have her in my sight. Kill her, and bring me back her heart as a token.” The huntsman obeyed, and took her away; but when he had drawn his knife, and was about to pierce Snow-white’s innocent heart, she began to weep, and said, “Ah dear huntsman, leave me my life! I will run away into the wild forest, and never come home again.”

And as she was so beautiful the huntsman had pity on her and said, “Run away, then, you poor child.” “The wild beasts will soon have devoured you,” thought he, and yet it seemed as if a stone had been rolled from his heart since it was no longer needful for him to kill her. And as a young boar just then came running by he stabbed it, and cut out its heart and took it to the Queen as proof that the child was dead. The cook had to salt this, and the wicked Queen ate it, and thought she had eaten the heart of Snow-white.

But now the poor child was all alone in the great forest, and so terrified that she looked at every leaf of every tree, and did not know what to do. Then she began to run, and ran over sharp stones and through thorns, and the wild beasts ran past her, but did her no harm.

She ran as long as her feet would go until it was almost evening; then she saw a little cottage and went into it to rest herself. Everything in the cottage was small, but neater and cleaner than can be told. There was a table on which was a white cover, and seven little plates, and on each plate a little spoon; moreover, there were seven little knives and forks, and seven little mugs. Against the wall stood seven little beds side by side, and covered with snow-white counterpanes.

Little Snow-white was so hungry and thirsty that she ate some vegetables and bread from each plate and drank a drop of wine out of each mug, for she did not wish to take all from one only. Then, as she was so tired, she laid herself down on one of the little beds, but none of them suited her; one was too long, another too short, but at last she found that the seventh one was right, and so she remained in it, said a prayer and went to sleep.

When it was quite dark the owners of the cottage came back; they were seven dwarfs who dug and delved in the mountains for ore. They lit their seven candles, and as it was now light within the cottage they saw that someone had been there, for everything was not in the same order in which they had left it.
The first said, “Who has been sitting on my chair?”
The second, “Who has been eating off my plate?”
The third, “Who has been taking some of my bread?”
The fourth, “Who has been eating my vegetables?”
The fifth, “Who has been using my fork?”
The sixth, “Who has been cutting with my knife?”
The seventh, “Who has been drinking out of my mug?”

Then the first looked round and saw that there was a little hole on his bed, and he said, “Who has been getting into my bed?” The others came up and each called out, “Somebody has been lying in my bed too.” But the seventh when he looked at his bed saw little Snow-white, who was lying asleep therein. And he called the others, who came running up, and they cried out with astonishment, and brought their seven little candles and let the light fall on little Snow-white. “Oh, heavens! oh, heavens!” cried they, “what a lovely child!” and they were so glad that they did not wake her up, but let her sleep on in the bed. And the seventh dwarf slept with his companions, one hour with each, and so got through the night.

When it was morning little Snow-white awoke, and was frightened when she saw the seven dwarfs. But they were friendly and asked her what her name was. “My name is Snow-white,” she answered. “How have you come to our house?” said the dwarfs. Then she told them that her step-mother had wished to have her killed, but that the huntsman had spared her life, and that she had run for the whole day, until at last she had found their dwelling. The dwarfs said, “If you will take care of our house, cook, make the beds, wash, sew, and knit, and if you will keep everything neat and clean, you can stay with us and you shall want for nothing.” “Yes,” said Snow-white, “with all my heart,” and she stayed with them. She kept the house in order for them; in the mornings they went to the mountains and looked for copper and gold, in the evenings they came back, and then their supper had to be ready. The girl was alone the whole day, so the good dwarfs warned her and said, “Beware of your step-mother, she will soon know that you are here; be sure to let no one come in.”

But the Queen, believing that she had eaten Snow-white’s heart, could not but think that she was again the first and most beautiful of all; and she went to her looking-glass and said —
“Looking-glass, Looking-glass, on the wall,
Who in this land is the fairest of all?”
and the glass answered —
“Oh, Queen, thou art fairest of all I see,
But over the hills, where the seven dwarfs dwell,
Snow-white is still alive and well,
And none is so fair as she.”

Then she was astounded, for she knew that the looking-glass never spoke falsely, and she knew that the huntsman had betrayed her, and that little Snow-white was still alive.

And so she thought and thought again how she might kill her, for so long as she was not the fairest in the whole land, envy let her have no rest. And when she had at last thought of something to do, she painted her face, and dressed herself like an old pedler-woman, and no one could have known her. In this disguise she went over the seven mountains to the seven dwarfs, and knocked at the door and cried, “Pretty things to sell, very cheap, very cheap.” Little Snow-white looked out of the window and called out, “Good-day my good woman, what have you to sell?” “Good things, pretty things,” she answered; “stay-laces of all colours,” and she pulled out one which was woven of bright-coloured silk. “I may let the worthy old woman in,” thought Snow-white, and she unbolted the door and bought the pretty laces. “Child,” said the old woman, “what a fright you look; come, I will lace you properly for once.” Snow-white had no suspicion, but stood before her, and let herself be laced with the new laces. But the old woman laced so quickly and so tightly that Snow-white lost her breath and fell down as if dead. “Now I am the most beautiful,” said the Queen to herself, and ran away.

Not long afterwards, in the evening, the seven dwarfs came home, but how shocked they were when they saw their dear little Snow-white lying on the ground, and that she neither stirred nor moved, and seemed to be dead. They lifted her up, and, as they saw that she was laced too tightly, they cut the laces; then she began to breathe a little, and after a while came to life again. When the dwarfs heard what had happened they said, “The old pedler-woman was no one else than the wicked Queen; take care and let no one come in when we are not with you.”

But the wicked woman when she had reached home went in front of the glass and asked —
“Looking-glass, Looking-glass, on the wall,
Who in this land is the fairest of all?”
and it answered as before —
“Oh, Queen, thou art fairest of all I see,
But over the hills, where the seven dwarfs dwell,
Snow-white is still alive and well,
And none is so fair as she.”

When she heard that, all her blood rushed to her heart with fear, for she saw plainly that little Snow-white was again alive. “But now,” she said, “I will think of something that shall put an end to you,” and by the help of witchcraft, which she understood, she made a poisonous comb. Then she disguised herself and took the shape of another old woman. So she went over the seven mountains to the seven dwarfs, knocked at the door, and cried, “Good things to sell, cheap, cheap!” Little Snow-white looked out and said, “Go away; I cannot let any one come in.” “I suppose you can look,” said the old woman, and pulled the poisonous comb out and held it up. It pleased the girl so well that she let herself be beguiled, and opened the door. When they had made a bargain the old woman said, “Now I will comb you properly for once.” Poor little Snow-white had no suspicion, and let the old woman do as she pleased, but hardly had she put the comb in her hair than the poison in it took effect, and the girl fell down senseless. “You paragon of beauty,” said the wicked woman, “you are done for now,” and she went away.

But fortunately it was almost evening, when the seven dwarfs came home. When they saw Snow-white lying as if dead upon the ground they at once suspected the step-mother, and they looked and found the poisoned comb. Scarcely had they taken it out when Snow-white came to herself, and told them what had happened. Then they warned her once more to be upon her guard and to open the door to no one.

The Queen, at home, went in front of the glass and said —
“Looking-glass, Looking-glass, on the wall,
Who in this land is the fairest of all?”
then it answered as before —
“Oh, Queen, thou art fairest of all I see,
But over the hills, where the seven dwarfs dwell,
Snow-white is still alive and well,
And none is so fair as she.”

When she heard the glass speak thus she trembled and shook with rage. “Snow-white shall die,” she cried, “even if it costs me my life!”

Thereupon she went into a quite secret, lonely room, where no one ever came, and there she made a very poisonous apple. Outside it looked pretty, white with a red cheek, so that everyone who saw it longed for it; but whoever ate a piece of it must surely die.

When the apple was ready she painted her face, and dressed herself up as a country-woman, and so she went over the seven mountains to the seven dwarfs. She knocked at the door. Snow-white put her head out of the window and said, “I cannot let any one in; the seven dwarfs have forbidden me.” “It is all the same to me,” answered the woman, “I shall soon get rid of my apples. There, I will give you one.”
“No,” said Snow-white, “I dare not take anything.” “Are you afraid of poison?” said the old woman; “look, I will cut the apple in two pieces; you eat the red cheek, and I will eat the white.” The apple was so cunningly made that only the red cheek was poisoned. Snow-white longed for the fine apple, and when she saw that the woman ate part of it she could resist no longer, and stretched out her hand and took the poisonous half. But hardly had she a bit of it in her mouth than she fell down dead. Then the Queen looked at her with a dreadful look, and laughed aloud and said, “White as snow, red as blood, black as ebony-wood! this time the dwarfs cannot wake you up again.”
And when she asked of the Looking-glass at home —
“Looking-glass, Looking-glass, on the wall,
Who in this land is the fairest of all?”
it answered at last —
“Oh, Queen, in this land thou art fairest of all.”
Then her envious heart had rest, so far as an envious heart can have rest.

The dwarfs, when they came home in the evening, found Snow-white lying upon the ground; she breathed no longer and was dead. They lifted her up, looked to see whether they could find anything poisonous, unlaced her, combed her hair, washed her with water and wine, but it was all of no use; the poor child was dead, and remained dead. They laid her upon a bier, and all seven of them sat round it and wept for her, and wept three days long.

Then they were going to bury her, but she still looked as if she were living, and still had her pretty red cheeks. They said, “We could not bury her in the dark ground,” and they had a transparent coffin of glass made, so that she could be seen from all sides, and they laid her in it, and wrote her name upon it in golden letters, and that she was a king’s daughter. Then they put the coffin out upon the mountain, and one of them always stayed by it and watched it. And birds came too, and wept for Snow-white; first an owl, then a raven, and last a dove.

And now Snow-white lay a long, long time in the coffin, and she did not change, but looked as if she were asleep; for she was as white as snow, as red as blood, and her hair was as black as ebony.
It happened, however, that a king’s son came into the forest, and went to the dwarfs’ house to spend the night. He saw the coffin on the mountain, and the beautiful Snow-white within it, and read what was written upon it in golden letters. Then he said to the dwarfs, “Let me have the coffin, I will give you whatever you want for it.” But the dwarfs answered, “We will not part with it for all the gold in the world.” Then he said, “Let me have it as a gift, for I cannot live without seeing Snow-white. I will honour and prize her as my dearest possession.” As he spoke in this way the good dwarfs took pity upon him, and gave him the coffin.

And now the King’s son had it carried away by his servants on their shoulders. And it happened that they stumbled over a tree-stump, and with the shock the poisonous piece of apple which Snow-white had bitten off came out of her throat. And before long she opened her eyes, lifted up the lid of the coffin, sat up, and was once more alive. “Oh, heavens, where am I?” she cried. The King’s son, full of joy, said, “You are with me,” and told her what had happened, and said, “I love you more than everything in the world; come with me to my father’s palace, you shall be my wife.”

And Snow-white was willing, and went with him, and their wedding was held with great show and splendour. But Snow-white’s wicked step-mother was also bidden to the feast. When she had arrayed herself in beautiful clothes she went before the Looking-glass, and said —
“Looking-glass, Looking-glass, on the wall,
Who in this land is the fairest of all?”
the glass answered —
“Oh, Queen, of all here the fairest art thou,
But the young Queen is fairer by far as I trow.”

Then the wicked woman uttered a curse, and was so wretched, so utterly wretched, that she knew not what to do. At first she would not go to the wedding at all, but she had no peace, and must go to see the young Queen. And when she went in she knew Snow-white; and she stood still with rage and fear, and could not stir. But iron slippers had already been put upon the fire, and they were brought in with tongs, and set before her. Then she was forced to put on the red-hot shoes, and dance until she dropped down dead.

THE MORISIEN VERSION

BWADEBENN

ZISTWAR W. EK J. GRIMM

RERAKONTE PAR DEV VIRAHSAWMY

Larenn Xhosa ti donn nesans enn zoli baba kouler dibwa ebenn. Mama ek papa ti fier bote zot tibaba. Li ti kouma enn stati taye dan dibwa ebenn par pli gran artis dan zot pei. So seve krepi ti kouma sevelir Anjeladevis. Lepep ti anadmirasion divan bote zot prenses. Ti apel li Prenses Bwadebenn.
Tifi la ti pe grandi bien antoure ar lamour so paran ek afeksion so pep. Kan li ti gagn wit an, so mama ti mor e mem lane so papa ti remarye. Nouvo larenn ti enn dimoun ki ti konn zis limem e amizir Prenses Bwadebenn ti pe grandi, so bote fizik, so entelizans ek so bonker ti enpresionn tou dimoun. Larenn so zalouzi ti pe touf li. Toulezour li ti dimann so laglas mazik:
Laglas, laglas mo gran konplis
Pa momem pli zoli aktris?
Laglas ti reponn:
Tomem larenn ki pli zoli
E kouma twa napeyna de.
Me fer atansion mazeste,
Tipti kapav vinn pli zoli.

Amizir letan ti pe pase, Prenses Bwadebenn so bote ti pe vinn proverbial. Enn swar Larenn ti al dimann so laglas:
Laglas, laglas mo gran konplis
Pa momem pli zoli aktris?
Laglas ti anbarase.
Tomem larenn ki pli zoli
E kouma twa napeyna de.
Prenses Bwadebenn pa larenn
Me so bote napeyna renn
E kouma li napeyna de.

Larenn ti araze; aswar li pa ti kapav dormi; kosmar ti may ar kosmar dan so somey. Boner lelandime gramaten li ti al divan so laglas ar so figir boufi ek sever. Ler li get seki li ti trouve, li pa ti gagn kouraz poz kestion. Pli tar li ti fer apel so serviter fidel ki li ti abitie proteze ek soutire.
‒ Ekout mwa bien. To bizen rann mwa enn gran servis. Pou ena bel rekonpans. Prenses Bwadebenn bizen mor. Li pe met sekirite leta andanze. Lerwa finn dimann mwa dimann twa fer sa.
‒ Kont lor mwa Mazeste.
Kan li ti tipti, souvan serviter la ti abitie amenn Prenses Bwadebenn promne dan lafore e kouma sezon fler ti arive, li ti reysi persiad prenses la pou akonpagn li dan lafore pou admir bote lanatir. Ler zot ti ariv dan leker lafore, li ti trap prenses la, tir so kouto pou touy li.
‒ Ki ou pe fer mo bon misie?
‒ Mo finn gagn lord pou touy ou.
‒ Si koumsa, pa pik mwa dan ledo. Get mwa dan mo lizie ler ou fons ou kouto dan mo leker.
Ler serviter larenn ti get so zoli lizie anlarm, li pa ti kapav kontinie so krim.
‒ Prenses, sove. Pa retourn dan sato.

Pou anbet lizie larenn li ti touy enn koson e ti al donn larenn so leker. Prenses Bwadebenn pa ti kone kot pou ale, ki pou fer. Li ti zis mars drwat divan li. Ver sis er tanto, li ti ariv kot enn ti kabann lapay kot set pigme ti reste. Li ti pous laport, rantre. Andan ti ena, omilie, enn latab ek set sez e toutotour ti ena set ti lili kolezien. Li ti telman fatige ki li ti zis zet so lekor lor premie lili e li ti plonze dan enn somey profon. Pli tar ler bann pigme ti retourne, zot ti gagn sok. Zame dan zot lavi zot ti trouv enn osi zoli mamzel. Pou pa deranz zot envite envolonter, zot ti sorti pou al dormi deor. Lelandime, kouma kok ti kas somey ar so koukouroukouk sonor, enn bote dibwa ebenn ti pe dibout dan ankadreman laport. Okenn artis pa ti pou kapav kre enn portre koumsa.
‒ Pardonn mwa bann misie. Akoz mwa zot finn oblize dormi deor.

Pigme ki ti mwens timid ti reponn, “Peyna problem, mamzel.” Prenses Bwadebenn ti dir zot ki pou gagn zot pardon, li ti pou prepar zot dezene. Li ti al fouy dan bife e ti ena tou pou fer enn bon nasta. Ler zot ti pe manze, li ti rakont so zistwar. Bann pigme ti bien sagren li. Zot ti tom dakor lor enn diil: Prenses Bwadebenn ti pou okip zot lakaz ek zot manze e zot, zot ti pou donn li ospitalite ek proteksion.

Laba dan pale, ler larenn ti gagn leker koson, li ti sir ki pa ti ena personn pou bat li dan bote. Lelandime, apre so twalet, li ti al get so laglas.
Laglas, laglas mo gran konplis
Pa momem pli zoli aktris?
Laglas ti reponn:
Tomem larenn ki pli zoli
E kouma twa napeyna de.
Prenses Bwadebenn pa larenn
Me so bote napeyna renn
E kouma li napeyna de
Dan kabann so set frer pigme.

Larenn ti koumans kime ar laraz. Li ti sey plizier plan asasina me nanye pa ti marse. Li ti panse, “Mo pa kapav fer personn konfians. Mo bizen okip sa nwizans la momem.”

Li ti degize an marsan fri tropikal. Dan so panie ti ena boukou zoli fri pome, jite ek kolore ki fit lapeti. Li ti al ver kabann pigme e ler li ti ariv laba, li ti tap lafnet parski Prenses Bwadebenn ti pe swiv konsey set pigme e zame li ti pou ouver laport. Ler Prenses Bwadebenn ti ouver lafnet, larenn so zalouzi ti manke trangle li telman sa mamzel divan so lizie ti zoli. Larenn ti tir enn grap leksi pome rouz disan. “Aste leksi enn pov malere ki pa ena manze dan so lakaz pou nouri so zanfan.” Kouma set pigme ti konsey li pa manz nanye ki etranze donn li parski ti deza ena enn foser ki ti donn li enn zamalak anpwazone. Erezman pwazon la pa ti mortel. “Non, mersi madam”, li ti dir marsan fri la. “Ou kwar mo mesanste? Gete! Mo manz enn leksi divan ou.” Li ti manz enn leksi divan Prenses Bwadebenn; lerla li ti kas enn pou donn Prenses Bwadebenn. Prenses la nepli ti kone ki li ti bizen fer. Li pa ti ole ofans madam la, pas pou enn malelve. Akontreker li ti plis leksi la e ti mord enn bout laser blan-vanienn mou, dou ek parfime. Toutswit li ti tom sek. Larenn ti kit li anplan dan enn riye makab ki ti fer bann zanimo dan lafore tranble. Ler bann pigme ti retourne, zot ti trouv zot prenses anba lor sali; so lekor ti red me li pa ti fre. Li ti tied. Lelandime ‘si ti parey. Li ti kouma dimoun mor me so lekor ti res tied. Leker lour, zot ti ranz enn serkey anver e zot ti met li ladan lor enn matla petal fler. Atourderol, enn pigme ti res akote li.

Apart set pigme, tou dimoun ti bliye Prenses Bwadebenn. Enn zour enn prens sorti dan enn lot pei ti pe pas par la e kiksoz dan kabann la ti atir li. Ler li ti tap laport, enn pigme ti vinn ouver laport. So lizie ti rouz ar sagren. Prens la ti dimann li ki ti finn ariv li ki ti pe fer li plore. Li ti rakont li zistwar Prenses Bwadebenn. Prens la ti enterese parski so marenn-fe ti dir li ki enn zour li ti pou zwenn enn bote prenses nwar kouma dibwa ebenn ar sevelir kouma Anjeladevis dan enn bwat anver. Si li ti pou poz enn badou lor so fron, prenses la ti pou sorti dan enn somey profon kot enn lespri jabolik ti plonz li. San atann, li ti dimann permision pou ouver serkey anver me pigme la ti dir li ki bizen atann sis lezot pigme revini. Prens la ti asiz akote prenses anveyez avek so nouvo kamwad anadorasion divan bote anzelik Prenses Bwadebenn.

Aswar, ler bann lezot pigme ti retourn lakaz, setiem pigme ti dir zot tou seki ti pase. Zot ti dibout otour serkey anver e ti ed lev so kouverk. Prens la ti bese e kouma so lalev ti tous fron Prenses Bwadebenn, so lizie ti ouver. Li ti mirmire, “Kot mo ete?” Prens la ti rakont so zistwar e lerla ansam zot ti al dan pei papa prens la.

Ler zot ti ariv laba, lerwa sa pei la ti fer enn gran maryaz so garson ar Prenses Bwadebenn. Apre maryaz, li ti anonse ki li ti pou abdike pou ki so belfi ek so garson pran direksion pei.
Sa zour la larenn jabolik ti al divan so laglas:
Laglas, laglas mo gran konplis
Pa momem pli zoli aktris?
Laglas ti reponn:
Wi, tomem pli zoli aktris
Me mo bien tris, mo bien-bien tris
Larenn Bwadebenn pli zoli
Ki tou larenn dan tou pei.
Enn laraz ti chombo larenn la par lagorz; li ti koumans kime ziska li ti tom anba dan so prop labav e li ti gagn palpitasion; so lekor ti koumans sakouye-tranble ziska ki so lavi ti ale.

Enn poet enpe fou-fou enn zour ti ekrir enn sante lor bote Bwadebenn:
Enn Prenses Bwadebenn lor enn tronn kler-de-linn,
Sevelir Afriken, sari laswa-de-sinn
Pe nouri lamour ar roulman lapo kabri
Anvlop nou nam ar sawal nouvo melodi.

Bann zwazo Samarel dan lesiel set kouler
Finn aprann mem sante; bann pwason dan lamer,
Tou bann pie lor montagn anker pe sant ansam.
Nouvo poem kram-kram aster pe donn lagam.

YANNDOU

par Loga Virahsawmy

©Loga Virahsawmy

Dan nou zoli pei Moris ti ena enn madam ek enn misie ki pa ti ena zanfan. Zot ti fer boukou demars pou reysi gagn enn ti baba. Zot ti tap laport tou zinekolog dan Moris. Zot ti al get bann gran-gran specialis dan lezot pei. Zot ti al Lafrans, Langleter, Lamerik, Lafrikdisid ek lezot pei ankor. Zot ti fer latet-lipie me malerezman mem bann gran-gran koko ti dir zot ki zame zot pa pou kapav gagn enn zanfan.

Madam la ti pe plore toulezour. Misie la ti bien kontan so madam. Li ti pe fer tou pou konsol li. Li ti dir li: “Pa fer nanye mo gate! Get komie dimoun peyna zanfan. Moi mo kontan twa, pa samem ki inportan!”

Enn zour letan madam la ti al bazar pou aste legim ek fri, li ti trouv enn vie bonnfam ki ti pe dimann sarite. So lenz ti kas-kase lor li. So figir ti vinn frize telman li ti ranpli ar rid. Dan so labous pa ti ena ledan. So lipie ti kouma lipie lelefan. Bann marsan bazar ti pe donn li kout baton mouroung, zot ti pe avoy legim pouri lor li. Zot ti pe zour li. Zot ti pe pous li depi dan bazar. Letan madam la ti trouv sa, so leker ti fermal. Li ti dimande: “Kifer zot fer sa bonnfam la mizer koumsa! Zot pa trouve li mizer? Les li rod so bouse manze! Aret fer li mizer koumsa!”

Bann marsan bazar ti reponn anker: “Enn volez sa madam, li koken legim, li koken fri. Kan dimann li kas zame li ena.”

Madam la ti gagn boukou sagren, li ti dir bonnfam la: “Mo loto dan parking, vinn ar mwa mo amenn ou kot mwa. Ou pou kapav pran enn bon ben so. Mo pou donn ou enn resanz lenz prop pou mete. Apre mo pou donn ou enn bon repa so pou ou manze. Ou pou gete sa pou fer ou boukou dibien.”
Kouma vie bonnfam ti fini manze, li ti telman kontan, li ti fer enn gran sourir e apre li ti dir:
“Beti dir mwa ki ou anvi, mo pou donn ou tou saki ou’le.”
“Ou fer mwa gagn sok! Ki ou pou kapav donn mwa, oumem ou peyna nanye.”
“Pa get laparans beti. Dimoun fer mwa mizer. Zot malmenn mwai me zot pa kone ki ena dan mo leker.”
“Be, eksplik mwa kifer ou pas mizer koumsa?”
“Si mo pa ti viv koumsa beti, zame mo pa ti pou konn mantalite dimoun. Zame mo pa ti pou kone kouma dimoun egois, materyalis. Zot lizie bouse. Zot pa trouv pli lwen ki zot bout nene. Zot konn zis zotmem. … Dir mwa ki ou ti’a kontan beti. Ou pou fer mwa enn gran plezir si ou dir mwa.”
“Mo mari ek mwa nou dan bien. Nou ena tou saki nou bizen. Lakaz, loto, larzan, manze me nou ena boukou sagren dan nou leker. Depi pre douz banane ki nou finn marye zame nou pa finn reysi met enn zanfan lor sa later la. Kan mo mari ek mwa mor tou pou disparet deryer nou. Nou pou ale koumadir zame nou ti vinn lor later… Nou pa pou les okenn tras deryer.”
“Pa bizen ou sagren beti. Pa bizen ou gagn okenn traka. Mo donn ou mo parol. Ou pou gagn enn extra zoli garson. Mo dir ou enn gran mersi pou tou saki ou finn fer pou mwa. Aster mo bizen ale. Salam!”

Madam la pa ti gagn letan poz plis kestion, vie bonnfam la ti fini ale. Apre detrwa zour madam la ti fini bliye saki vie bonnfam la ti dir li. Li ti kontinie so lavi parey kouma avan.

Trwa mwa plitar, letan enn zour mari la ti pe pas lame lor vant so fam, so figir ti sanze. Li ti gagn enn gro traka, li ti dir so madam: “To vant kouma gro koumsa! Li pa normal sa! Mo kwar to finn gagn enn groser. Degaze, degaze mo amenn twa kot dokter avan sa vinn pli grav. Fode pa badine ar sa bann zafer la. Peyna enn minit pou perdi.” Toutsouit mari ti met so fam dan loto pou al kot dokter. Letan dokter ti fini ekzaminn madam la li ti dir: “Vremem ou pe gagn enn groser dan ou vant…..” Dokter pa ti gagn letan fini so fraz, mari la ti dir li: “Dir nou si li danzere dokter. Dir nou si bizen opere.” Dokter ti reponn: “Ou pa les mwa fini mo fraz. Ou madam ena enn groser dan so vant, oui. Enn groser ki pou kontinie vinn gro, oui. Be les nou gete kifer? Kifer? Parski groser la pou amenn boukou boner dan ou fami. Ou madam pe atann enn ti baba.” Zot ti telman kontan ki zot ti may dokter, zot ti anbras li.

Letan zot ti retourn lakaz, mari la pa ti les so fam fer louvraz. Li ti donn li tou latasion, tou lamour ki li ti kapav done. Li ti donn li enn tas dile lor lili toule gramaten. Ti servi li so manze so-so. Zot ti fer tou shoping pou ti baba ansam. Tou saki madam la ti dir aste, mari la ti aste. Zot ti mem dekor lasam ti baba ansam.

Baba la ti ne enn ledouz zis nef mwa apre ki vie bonnfam ti vinn dan zot lakaz. Zot ti apel li Yanndou. Yanndou so mama ek so papa ti telman kontan ki zot ti finn reysi met enn zanfan lor later apre douz banane maryaz, ki zot ti donn pli gran fet ki zame pei Moris ti finn kone.

Zot ti envit tou dimoun ki zot ti kone pou sa fet la. Ti ena bann dimoun ki ti sorti enpe partou dan lezot pei. Ti bizen lwe kanpman lor laplaz pou bann dimounn ki sorti lezot pei kapav reste. Aswar apre gran dine kot ti ena douz kalite manze, ti ena enn gran fedartifis kalite lor kouler. Premie fwa dan pei Moris ti trouv sa kalite fedartifis la.

Mama Yanndou ti fer latet-lipie pou reysi trouv vie bonnfam pou envit li dan fet. Kan vie bonnfam ti vini, bann dimounn ti pe dir: “Enn zoli fet koumsa, zot invit sa kalite dimoun la. So plas pa isi sa. So plas dan poubel.” Mama Yanndou pa ti’le bles so bann envite. Li ti prefer res trankil; li ti les bann dimoun la pas zot komanter. Ena ki ti mem dir: “Pa les sa bonnfam la apros kot ber sa piti la. Taler li met move sor lor li. Taler li fann so mikrob ar li.” Mama Yanndou pa ti ekout zot.

Kouma vie bonnfam ti apros kot ber baba la, li ti fixe Yanndou dan so lizie. Li ti poz so pla lame dousman lor latet baba la, li ti dir: “ To gro lizie noir kouma lagren longann, to long sil noir kouma laswa, to long seve noir kouma satin, to zoli sourir kouma Krishna, to lapo kouma pes. Enn zour to pou vinn enn gran dimoun mo garson. To lizie pe briye kouma zetwal dan lesiel. To pou vinn extra entelizan.” Apre li ti tourn ar Yanndou so mama ek so papa li ti dir, “Mo espere mo pou reysi trouv sa gran dimoun la dan mo vivan.”

Letan Yanndou ti koumans grandi li ti enterese ar enn sel zafer. Kamion. Asakfwa dimann li ki li ti’a kontan gagne li ti dir “kamon”. Okenn magazin pa ti kapav met konpetision ar Yanndou so koleksion kamion. Li ti telman gate, tou dimoun ti telman kontan li, ki zot tou ti pe donn li kamion. So papa ti pe dir “Pa posib sa. Mo kwar vie bonnfam la finn fer erer. Peyna sime li vinn enn gran dimoun. Pli sir li pou vinn kamioner.” Mama la ti pe dir “Les li! Pa fer nanye! Pa fer nanye si li vinn kamioner. Ki ena ladan? Pourvi li fer so travay bien.”

Kan Yanndou ti gagn enn banane, vie bonnfam ti paret divan laport ar enn ti kamion dan so lame. Bann paran Yanndou ti gagn sok, zot ti dir li: “Kouma ou kone ki sa piti la kontan kamion? Ena enn zafer ki ou pa kone! Piti la pa pou vinn enn gran dimoun kouma ou ti pe dir. Li konn zis kamion. Nou, nou pli sir li pou vinn kamioner. Dan so vokabiler ena enn sel mo: ‘kamon’. ”

Vie bonnfam pa ti reponn, li ti donn Yanndou so ti kamion, li ti ale.

Letan Yanndou ti gagn dezan, li ti vinn enn exper lor kamion. Plis enn kamion gro plis li kontan kamion la. Ofiramizir Yanndou ti pe grandi so lamour pou kamion ousi ti pe kontinie grandi. Li ti pe obliz so papa amenn li get kamion lor lari. Kan li ti pe trouv kamion salte, li ti pe tap so de lame, li ti pe dir “kamosal”. Papa la ti dir: “Mo ti kwar piti la ti pou vinn komioner, asterla mo trouve li pe sanz lalign. Pli sir li pou vinn lever salte. Kitfwa li va fini dan bazar parey kouma vie bonnfam la. Bonnfam la va ramas legim pouri, piti la va met li dan kamion.” Enn zour li ti mem obliz so papa amenn li promne dan enn kamion. Mem mama la ti bizen sede divan kapris so garson. Li ti vann so loto pou aste enn ti kamionet parski Yanndou ti refiz vwayaz dan loto. Li ti pe dir “popom kamon, popom kamon. Non, oto non, pale oto, Yanndou kamon!”

So bann paran ti pe gagn boukou traka. Zot ti fini fer bann gran-gran plan pou Yanndou. Zot ti fini fer aplikasion pou met li dan pli gran lekol prive ki ti ena dan Moris. Apre so letid sekonder zot ti pou avoy li Lamerik pou al fer letid dan lekonomi, finans ek kompyouter. So mama ti fini aste enn kompyouter pou fer so ti ledwa gagn pratik ar maous. Yandou ti kontan so kompyouter me li ti touzour prefer so bann kamion. Get kamion salte pase samem ti so pli gran plezir.

Parfwa kan Yanndou ti sorti lekol, li ti pe asiz kot so lafnet, ferm so lizie, ekout kamion pase; apre li ti pe resit bann mark kamion dan so latet. Li pa ti konn zis mark, li ti konn ousi dan ki pei bann kamion la ti sorti. Li ti pe repet tou sa bann mark la sistematikman koumadir ti enn devwar lekol. Li ti fini par konn tou mark kamion ki ti ena dan zoli pei Moris.

Malgre ki so bann paran ti fini perdi lespwar lor Yanndou so lavenir, zot gran konsolasion se ki piti la ti kontan so lekol. Li pa ti enn zeni me li ti pe fer bien dan lekol. Apre so lekzame sinior so bann paran ti desid pou avoy li Lamerik. Papa la ti dir: “Vomie li ale asterlamem. Nou bien sagren pou avoy enn zenn zanfan koumsa dan enn osi gran pei. Me, ki pou fer, kitfwa dan enn gran sant, li va sanze. Kitfwa kan li trouv lezot kitzoz li va bliye kamion enpe. Li va ena kitsoz nouvo pou okip so lespri.”
Apre so letid iniversiter, letan Yandou ti retourn Moris, so bann paran ti dimann li ki li ti’a konta fer. Zot ti gagn sok kan Yanndou ti reponn “kamion”. So papa ti santi so latet vire. Li ti kapav tom sankonesans: “ Mo finn pey tou sa banane letid la pou twa dan pei Lamerik, pou to dir mwa to pou vinn kamioner! Ki nou pou fer ar twa! Nou ena enn sel zanfan. Nou ti kwar to pou fer loner to fami!”
Yandou pa ti reponn.

Lespas detrwa zan apre Yanndou so retour, ti ena bann kamion kalite lor kouler lor tou sime ek partou kote dan zoli pei Moris. Koumadir ti ena enn revolision kamion.

Ti ena ti kamion, gro kamion, kamion remorker, kamion derik, kamion 10 tonn, 20 tonn, 30 tonn, tousort grander, tousort longer, toutsort pwa. Ti ena kamion ki ti pe ramas salte; ti ena ki ti pe fer demenazman. Lor tou sit travay ti ena gro-gro kamion. Ti ena kamion lor sit konstriksion, dan lepor, lor sit CEB. Ti ena kamion ki ti pe sarye travayer, sarye siman, sarye marsandiz. Ti ena osi kamion ki anvole, ki roul lor dilo ek anba lamer.

Me tou sa bann kamion la ti ena enn zafer ankomen. Lor zot tou ti ekrir ‘YANNDOU’.

YANNDOU (IN ENGLISH)

Translated into English by David Coy

In the beautiful country of Mauritius there was a woman and a man who were unable to have children. They had tried many treatments to have a little baby. They had knocked on the doors of all the gynaecologists in Mauritius, they had been to see the top specialists in other countries too. They had travelled to France, England , America, South Africa and many countries besides. They had searched high and low, but unfortunately even the greatest minds around had told them that they would never be able to have a child.

The woman cried continuously. The man loved his wife very much and tried everything to console her. He said: ‘It doesn’t matter my darling! Look at how many people don’t have children. I love you! That’s the important thing!’

One day the woman went to the market to buy some vegetables and fruit; there she saw and old woman begging on the charity of passers by. Her clothes were torn, and her face was lined with age. In her mouth she had no teeth at all. Her feet were swollen like the feet of an elephant. The merchants in the market would hit her with sticks and throw rotten vegetables at her. They swore at her and they pushed her out of the marketplace. When the woman saw this her heart was filled with pain. She asked: ‘Why do you treat this old woman like that! Can’t you see that she is poor? Let her find some food to eat and stop treating her so badly!’

The merchants replied saying: ‘She is a thief, she steals vegetables and snatches fruit. When we ask for payment she never has any money!’

The woman became very sad and told the old lady: ‘My car is in the car-park. Come with me and I will take you to my house. You can take a good hot bath and I will give you some clean clothes to wear. Then I will give you a good meal to eat. You will soon feel much better.

When the old woman had finally finished her meal, she felt very contented. She smiled broadly and said:
‘ Tell me what it is that you want, I will give you all that you ask for!’
‘You surprise me! What can you give to me when you yourself have nothing?’
‘Don’t judge me by my appearance! People make me sad. They abuse me, but they don’t know what is in my heart.’
‘Huh! Explain what you mean.’
‘ If I had not lived like this I would have never known the mentality of people. I would have never known how people can be such egotists, so materialistic. Their eyes are closed and they can’t see further than the ends of their noses. They think only for themselves! Tell me what would make you happy, you would please me very much if you told me.’

‘My husband and I are well off. There is nothing that we really need. We have a house and a car, money and plenty of food, but there is a lot of sadness in our hearts. It has been nearly 12 years since we were married and yet we have not been able to have a child. When my husband and I die all we have will vanish behind us. It will be as if we had never existed…there will be no trace left.
‘Don’t be so sad. There’s no need for you to worry. I give you my word. You will have a beautiful son. I must thank you for the great kindness that you have done for me. Now I must go. Farewell.

The woman had no chance to ask any more questions, the old woman had already gone. After two or three days the woman had forgotten what the Old lady had told her. She continued to live her life the same as before.

Three months later, there came a day when her husband stroked his hand across her stomach and the expression on his face changed. He became a little worried and said to his wife: ‘Your stomach is larger! This is not normal! I think you must have a tumour. Quickly, let me take you to the doctor before it becomes more serious. It’s best not to joke about these things, there’s not a minute to waste!’

Straight away the man put his wife into his car and drove to the doctor. When the doctor had finished his examination he said: ‘It is true that you have something growing in your stomach…’ but the doctor was not able to finish his sentence.

‘Tell us if it is dangerous’ said the man, ‘Tell us if you have to operate.’
The doctor replied: ‘You didn’t let me finish. Your wife has something growing in her stomach, and it will continue to grow. Can’t you guess why? Why? Because this swelling will bring much luck to your family. You wife is expecting a child!’

The couple were overjoyed at the words of the doctor and they kissed him.

Later, when the couple returned to their house, the man refused to let the woman do anything. He gave her all his attention, all the love that he had to give. He gave her a glass of milk in bed every morning. He served her good hot food. They went out together to buy all the things for the baby.
The baby was born exactly nine months after the old lady had been brought to their house. They called him Yanndou.

Yanndou’s mother and father were so happy that they had brought a child into this world after 12 year of marriage that they gave the biggest party that had ever been seen in Mauritius.

They invited all the people that they knew to the party. People came from many other countries. They had to hire a bungalow by the beach to accommodate all the people who came from abroad. In the evening after a grand dinner where a dozen kinds of food were served, there was a tremendous fireworks display of such colour and spectacle that it was the first time that Mauritius had witnessed such a quality display.

Yanndou’s mother searched high and low to try and find the old lady to invite her to the party. When the old lady came the people said: ‘ A beautiful party like this and they invite a person like that! This is no place for her, she should be in a dustbin.’

Yanndou’s mother did not want to hurt her invited guests and so she remained quiet, she let the people pass their comments. One even said: ‘ Don’t let that old woman get close to the child, she will put bad sores on him, her germs will go onto him.’ But Yanndou’s mother didn’t listen to them.

When the Old Lady approached the cot where the baby lay, she stared into Yanndou’s eyes. She placed the palm of her hand gently onto his head and she said: ‘Your big eyes are as black as longann stone, your long black eye-lashes are like silk. Your black hair is like satin and your beautiful smile is like Krishna’s, you skin is like that of a peach. One day you will become a great man my son.. Your eyes will sparkle like the stars in the sky. You will be exceptionally intelligent.’ Then she turned to Yanndou’s mother and father and said: ‘I hope I will see this great man in my lifetime.’

Later, as Yanndou stared to grow, he became interested in just one thing. Lorries! Everytime you asked him what he liked he would reply ‘lorries’. There was not a shop that could rival Yanndou’s lorry collection. He was constantly spoiled, and everyone loved him and they always gave him lorries! His father said: ‘ This isn’t possible! I think that Old Lady made a mistake. There’s no way he will become a great man. It’s more certain that he will be a lorry driver!’ His mother said: ‘Let him be! Don’t do anything! It doen’t matter if he becomes a lorry driver, what’s wrong with that? So long as he does his work well!’

When Yanndou was a few years old, the Old Lady appeared at the door with a lorry in her hands. Yanndou’s parents were surprised and said to her: ‘How did you know that this child loves lorries? That’s something you couldn’t have known! This child will never be a great man like you said. He only likes lorries! We are certain that he will become a lorry driver. In his vocabulary there is only one word: “Lorry”!’

The Old Lady did not reply. She gave Yanndou the little lorry and left.

When Yanndou was 2 he had become an expert on lorries. The bigger the lorry was, the more he liked it. As Yanndou continued to grow, so did his love for lorries grow also. He would make his father take him to see lorries on the roads. When he saw the rubbish collection lorries he would clap his hands and shout ‘Dustcarts’. His father said: ‘I was sure that he would become a lorry driver, but now he seems to have changed allegiance. It’s more certain that he will be a dustbin-man. Perhaps he will end up in the markets just like that old woman. She will collect rotten vegetables and he will collect them in his lorry. One day he made his father take him for a ride in a lorry. Even his mother had to give in to her capricious son. She had to sell her car to buy a small van, because Yanndou refused to travel by car.

He would say, “Go lorry! Go lorry! No car, no! Don’t want car! Yanndou want Lorry!”

His parents began to have serious worries. They had already made great plans for Yanndou. They had made the application to send him to the best Private School in Mauritius. After his secondary education, they would send him to America to study economics, finance and computing. His mother had bought him a computer, to help him become used to using them, but still he preferred his lorries. Seeing a Garbage truck was for him his greatest pleasure.

Sometimes when Yanndou came back from school, he would sit by the window, close his eyes and listen to the lorries passing by. Then he would recite all the different makes stored in his head. He not only knew the makes, but also the countries that they came from. He would repeat all the makes systematically as if he was doing homework. He already knew all of the makes of lorry that could be found in the beautiful Island of Mauritius.

Even though his parents had lost all hope for Yanndou’s future, their greatest consolation was that their child loved his school. He was no genius, but still he did well. After his ‘O’ level exams, his parents decided to send him to America. His father said “Better to send him now. We are very sad to send such a young child into such a big country. But what can we do? Maybe in a new place he will change. Perhaps when he sees other things he will forget about lorries a little. He will have new things to think about.

After his university studies, Yanndou came back to Mauritius and his parents asked him what he would like to do. They had a shock when Yanndou replied “Lorries”. His Father felt dizzy and nearly fainted: “ Have I paid for all those years of study for you in America, for you to tell me that you want to be a lorry driver! What can we do with you, you are our only child, we had hoped you would bring honour to our family”.

Yanndou made no reply.

A few years after Yanndou returned, there were all kinds and colours of lorries to be found in all corners of the island. It was as if there had been a lorry revolution.

There were small lorries, big lorries, recovery trucks, crane trucks, 10-ton trucks, 20 ton, 30 ton, all sizes, all shapes, all colours. There were lorries to collect the rubbish, removal lorries. On all work-sites there were giant lorries. In construction sites, at the docks, at the CEB. There were lorries carrying workers, carrying cement and carrying goods. There were also lorries that flew, that went on the water and under the sea.

However, all of the lorries had one thing in common. On each of them was written ‘YANNDOU’.

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