A noun names a person, animal, plant, place, or thing.
1. For the plural form of most nouns, add s.
pen – pens
pencil – pencils
door – doors
window – windows
2. For nouns that end in ch, x, or s, add es.
box – boxes
watch – watches
bus – buses
3. For nouns ending in f or fe, change f to v and add es.
wife – wives
leaf – leaves
life – lives
4. Some nouns have different plural forms.
child – children
woman – women
man – men
mouse – mice
5. A few nouns have only one form.
sheep – sheep
deer – deer
cattle – cattle
furniture – furniture
Nou servi nom pou apel enn dimoun, enn zanimo, enn plant, enn kiksoz.
Pou endik pliryel an Morisien nou servi marker ‘bann’ ki nou plase divan nom la.
zanfan – bann zanfan; zwazo – bann zwazo; pie – bann pie; latab – bann latab ets.
There are two types of articles: indefinite and definite articles.
The words ‘a’, ‘an’, and ‘the’ are special words called articles.
1. Indefinite Articles: a, an
‘an’ is used before singular nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u).
an apple, an elephant, an orange
‘a’ is used before singular nouns beginning with consonants (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z)
A pen, a pencil, a door, a window
2. Definite Article (the) is used to indicate a noun that is known or already referred to:
I like the clothes you gave me.
The book I bought is interesting.
The chair I use is broken.
NB aricles are placed before nouns.
Dan Morisien ena 2 artik: artik endefini ek artik defini.
1. artik endefini: enn
enn latab, enn sez, enn liv, enn kaye
2. artik defini: la
latab la, sez la, liv la, kaye la
NB Bizen plas artik defini apre nom.
Verbs express action, feeling or situation.
Enn verb li kapav exprim enn axion, enn santiman ousa enn sitiasion.
I run./Mo galoupe.
I cook food./Mo kwi manze.
I clean my room./Mo netway mo lasam.

I am happy/Mo ere.

I like to swim/mo kontan naze.

There are 3 tenses: present, past, future.
Ena 3 tan: prezan, pase, fitir.
Tense/Tan English Morisien
present/prezan I cook food. Mo kwi manze.
past/pase I cooked food. Mo ti kwi manze.
future/fitir I will cook food. Mo pou kwi manze.
NB When placed at the end of a verb, ‘ed’ is a marker of the past. ‘will’ is the English marker for the future tense.
Dan Morisien ‘ti’ li endik tan pase ek ‘pou’ li endik tan fitir.
There are some English verbs which do not take ‘ed’ to indicate the past. They are called irregular verbs.
Here are some examples:
eat ate eaten
drink drank drunk
know knew known
begin began begun
draw drew drawn
speak spoke spoken
swim swam swum
go went gone
take took taken
teach taught taught
In both English and Mauritian, aspect markers are used to indicate continuity (present or past continuous) or accomplishment (present or past perfect).
aspect/aspe English Morisien
Present continuous: I am cooking food./Mo pe kwi manze.
Present perfect: I have cooked food./Mo finn kwi manze.
Past continuous: I was cooking food./Mo ti pe kwi manze.
Past perfect: I had cooked food./Mo ti finn kwi manze.
A pronoun takes the place of a noun.
Example story:
Mary is one of the heads of the ToJi Corporation. Mary works with Mr. James and Mr. James’ son Tom. Mr. James and Mr. James’ son Tom are experts in biochemistry. Mary, Mr. James, and Tom researched and invented a drug for cancer treatment.
Let us write the same story using pronouns:
Mary is one of the heads of the ToJi Corporation. She works with Mr. James and his son Tom. He and his son Tom are experts in biochemistry. They researched and invented a drug for cancer treatment.
SENGILIE SIZE:  mo,  to/ou,  li
SENGILE OBZE:  mwa,  twa/ou,  li
SENGILIE REFLEXIF:  momem,  tomem,  limem
PLIRYEL SIZE:  nou,  zot,  bannla
PLIRYEL OBZE:  nou,  zot,  bannla
PLIRYEL REFLEXIF:  noumem,  zotmem,  bannlamem
Singular subject:  I,  you,  he,  she,  it
Singular object:  me,  you,  him,  her,  It
Singular reflexive:  myself,  yourself,  himself,  herself,  itself
Plural subject:  we,  you,  they
Plural object:  us,  you,  them
Plural reflexive:  ourselves,  yourselves,  themselves
Adjectives describe or modify nouns.
I like fairy tales. A fairy tale is an imaginary story that has unrealistic characters in a fantastic background. It makes me forget about the real world and refreshes my tired mind.
Adjectives generally appear immediately before the noun: a pretty girl; red flowers; a long stick; heavy boxes; warm weather.
Commonly, adjectives of opposite meaning are formed by adding a prefix such as un, in, or dis.
1. clear – unclear, important – unimportant, predictable – unpredictable, believable – unbelievable, common – uncommon, aware – unaware, ambiguous – unambiguous, conventional – unconventional, certain – uncertain
2. definite – indefinite, correct – incorrect, comparable – incomparable, complete – incomplete, evitable – inevitable, expensive – inexpensive
3. able – disable, assemble – disassemble, content – discontent, similar – dissimilar
Dan Angle ek Morisien, azektif pa sanz form: zoli tifi; zoli pei; zoli fler; zoli lesiel; zoli lamer (beautiful girl; beautiful country; beautiful flower; beautiful sky; beautiful sea). Dan Angle azektif normalman plase avan nom me dan Morisien ena azektif ki plase avan nom ek ena azektif ki plase apre nom: zoli tifi; tifi debrouyar; gran garson; garson malen.
Adverbs modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
1. An adverb tells more about a verb in the sentence.
The fire engine runs fast.
Listen to his speech carefully.
I browse the web frequently.
It rained hard.
2. An adverb describes more about an adjective in the sentence.
The news is very surprising!
The coffee is extremely hot, so be careful.
Nature is really amazing!
3. An adverb modifies another adverb in the sentence.
It rains very hard.
Computers run much faster these days.
I clean my room less frequently because I am busy.
4. Commonly, adjectives can be changed to adverbs by adding ‘ly’.
slow – slowly
quick – quickly
comfortable – comfortably
loud – loudly
clear – clearly
5. To change adjectives ending in ‘y’ into adverbs, change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘ly’.
happy – happily
easy – easily
Enn adverb li modifie enn verb, enn azektif ousa enn lot adverb:
1. Li galoup vit.
Li manz tro.
Li badine toultan.
2. Li bien zoli.
Li mari vilen.
Li extra manter.
3. Li galoup mari vit.
Li manz tro boukou.
Li zape tro souvan.
Ena 3 kalite adverb: adverb letan, adverb landrwa ek adverb manier.
1. Mo pou vini dime.
Yer, mo ti dir twa.
Mo fann ar li aster.
2. Mo res isi.
Mo pe al laba.
Mo pil anplas.
3. Li koz bien.
Li galoup vit.
Li travay serye.
A conjunction joins words or groups of words in a sentence.
Two types of conjunctions:
1. Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, so, for, yet, and not
2.Correlative Conjunctions: both/and, either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also
1.And—means “in addition to”:
We are going to a zoo and an aquarium on the same day.
2.But—connects two different things that are not in agreement:
I am a night owl, but she is an early bird.
3.Or—indicates a choice between two things:
Do you want a red one or a blue one?
4.So—illustrates a result of the first thing:
This song has been very popular, so I downloaded it.
5.For—means “because”:
I want to go there again, for it was a wonderful trip.
6.Yet—indicates contrast with something:
He performed very well, yet he didn’t make the final cut.
She won gold medals from both the single and group races.
Both TV and television are correct words.
I am fine with either Monday or Wednesday.
You can have either apples or pears.
He enjoys neither drinking nor gambling.
Neither you nor I will get off early today.
4.Not only/but also
Not only red but also green looks good on you.
She got the perfect score in not only English but also math.
ek, me, parski, ousa, me pa, swa…swa, ni…ni
Li ek mwa, nou ti al sinema.
Mo kontan sante ek mo kontan danse.
Mo kontan sante me mo pa kontan danse.
Mo ekout li parski li enn bon profeser.
To kapav al lekours ousa sinema me pa toulede.
Swa to aprann, swa to zwe, me pa toulede.
Ni to’le aprann, ni to’le travay.
1. Used to express a surface of something:
I put an egg on the kitchen table.
The paper is on my desk.
2. Used to specify days and dates:
The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays.
I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988.
3. Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer:
He is on the phone right now.
She has been on the computer since this morning.
My favorite movie will be on TV tonight.
4. Used to indicate a part of the body:
The stick hit me on my shoulder.
He kissed me on my cheek.
I wear a ring on my finger.
5. Used to indicate the state of something:
Everything in this store is on sale.
The building is on fire.
1. Used to point out specific time:
I will meet you at 12 p.m.
The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m.
2. Used to indicate a place:
There is a party at the club house.
There were hundreds of people at the park.
We saw a baseball game at the stadium.
3. Used to indicate an email address:
Please email me at
4. Used to indicate an activity:
He laughed at my acting.
I am good at drawing a portrait.
1. Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year:
She always reads newspapers in the morning.
In the summer, we have a rainy season for three weeks.
The new semester will start in March.
2. Used to indicate a location or place:
She looked me directly in the eyes.
I am currently staying in a hotel.
My hometown is Los Angeles, which is in California.
3. Used to indicate a shape, color, or size:
This painting is mostly in blue.
The students stood in a circle.
This jacket comes in four different sizes.
4. Used to express while doing something:
In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times.
A catch phrase needs to be impressive in marketing a product.
5. Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling:
I believe in the next life.
We are not interested in gambling.
1. Used for belonging to, relating to, or connected with:
The secret of this game is that you can’t ever win.
The highlight of the show is at the end.
The first page of the book describes the author’s profile.
Don’t touch it. That’s the bag of my friend’s sister.
I always dreamed of being rich and famous.
2. Used to indicate reference:
I got married in the summer of 2000.
This is a picture of my family.
I got a discount of 10 percent on the purchase.
3. Used to indicate an amount or number:
I drank three cups of milk.
A large number of people gathered to protest.
I had only four hours of sleep during the last two days.
He got a perfect score of 5 on his writing assignment.
1. Used to indicate the place, person, or thing that someone or something moves toward, or the direction of something:
I am heading to the entrance of the building.
The package was mailed to Mr. Kim yesterday.
All of us went to the movie theater.
Please send it back to me.
2. Used to indicate a limit or an ending point:
The snow was piled up to the roof.
The stock prices rose up to 100 dollars.
3. Used to indicate relationship:
This letter is very important to your admission.
My answer to your question is in this envelop.
Do not respond to every little thing in your life.
4. Used to indicate a time or a period:
I work nine to six, Monday to Friday.
It is now 10 to five. (In other words, it is 4:50.)
1. Used to indicate the use of something:
This place is for exhibitions and shows.
I baked a cake for your birthday.
I put a note on the door for privacy.
She has been studying hard for the final exam.
2. Used to mean because of:
I am so happy for you.
We feel deeply sorry for your loss.
For this reason, I’ve decided to quit this job.
3. Used to indicate time or duration:
He’s been famous for many decades.
I attended the university for one year only.
This is all I have for today.
1. Used to indicate being together or being involved:
I ordered a sandwich with a drink.
He was with his friend when he saw me.
She has been working with her sister at the nail shop.
The manager will be with you shortly.
2. Used to indicate “having”:
I met a guy with green eyes.
Were you the one talking with an accent?
People with a lot of money are not always happy.
3. Used to indicate “using”:
I wrote a letter with the pen you gave me.
This is the soup that I made with rice and barley.
He cut my hair with his gold scissors.
4. Used to indicate feeling:
I am emailing you with my sincere apology.
He came to the front stage with confidence.
5. Used to indicate agreement or understanding:
Are you with me?
Yes, I am completely with you.
She agrees with me.
1. Used to indicate movement from one place to another:
Come over to my house for dinner sometime.
Could you roll over?
They sent over a gift for his promotion.
2. Used to indicate movement downward:
The big tree fell over on the road.
Can you bend over and get the dish for me?
He pushed it over the edge.
3. Used to indicate more than an expected number or amount:
This amount is over our prediction.
Kids twelve and over can watch this movie.
The phone rang for over a minute.
4. Used to indicate a period of time:
I worked there over a year.
She did not sleep there over this past month.
1. Used to indicate proximity:
Can I sit by you?
He was standing by me.
The post office is by the bank.
2. Used to indicate the person that does something in a passive voice sentence:
The microwave was fixed by the mechanic.
The flowers were delivered by a postman.
The branch office was closed by the head office.
3. Used to indicate an action with a particular purpose:
You can pass the exam by preparing for it.
I expressed my feeling toward her by writing a letter.
She finally broke the record by pure effort.
4. Used to indicate a method:
Please send this package to Russia by airmail.
I came here by bus.
lor, anba, atraver, dan, ar, ver, pou, akote, par
poz li lor latab.
Met li anba lili.
Bal la finn rant atraver so leker.
Dan gramaten mo fer lekzersis.
Mo koz ar li me li pa ekoute.
Mo pe al ver Rozil.
Ver midi mo pou retourn lakaz.
Mo finn aste sa pou twa.
Mo res akote filing.
Mo finn vinn par bis.
Word classes are not always watertight. On the edge there may be some flexibility.
Bann klas mo zot pa net fix. Lor zot rebor kapav ena flexibilite.
1. In both English and Mauritian a noun can be used as an adjective in certain context.
‘stone’ is a noun but in ‘stone wall’ it is an adjective. Other examples: bird cage, door knob, beach tourism etc. This is also found in Mauritian: lakaz lapay, pie mang, mang lakord etc.
2. In Mauritian an adjective may be used as a stative verb: Mo zanfan malen. Instead of a copula, stative verbs are used.
A sentence must have at least a subject and a verb: It (subject) is raining (verb). Lapli (size) pe tonbe (verb).
There are 3 types of sentences: simple, compound and complex.
Ena 3 kalite fraz: senp, konpoze ek konplex.

SIMPLE/SENP: Mo kwi kari. (I cook curry.)
COMPOUND/KONPOZE: Mo manz dipen ek mo bwar dite. (I eat bread and I drink tea.)
COMPLEX/KONPLEX: Li pa travay parski li malad. (He/she does not work because he/she is ill.)








The sun does arise,
And make happy the skies;
The merry bells ring
To welcome the Spring;
The skylark and thrush,
The birds of the bush,
Sing louder around
To the bells’ cheerful sound;
While our sports shall be seen
On the echoing green.

Old John, with white hair,
Does laugh away care,
Sitting under the oak,
Among the old folk.
They laugh at our play,
And soon they all say,
‘Such, such were the joys
When we all—girls and boys—
In our youth-time were seen
On the echoing green.’

Till the little ones, weary,
No more can be merry:
The sun does descend,
And our sports have an end.
Round the laps of their mothers
Many sisters and brothers,
Like birds in their nest,
Are ready for rest,
And sport no more seen
On the darkening green.


(Pou Kardinal Jean Margeot)
Ler soley leve
Fer lesiel riye
Laklos ding-dong-bel
Apel Samarel;
Zwazo tou kouler
Lor pie, dan lezer
Sant for-for, pli for
Ki laklos an-nor
Ler nou tap nou jal
Dan pei mazikal.

Ton Zan seve blan
Efas nou tourman;
Anba pie pipal
Korom amikal
Riye get nou zwe.
Ekout zot koze:
” Koumsamem lontan
Kan nou ti zanfan
Nou ti tap nou jal
Dan pei mazikal.”

Ler bann tipti fatige
Nepli kapav amize
– Soley al bwar dilo –
Nou jalsa net chombo.
Lor godi zot mama
Gran zanfan, ti baba,
Bann zwazo Makabe
Pe kas kou, pe reve;
Zot chomtayt bann jal
Dan pei mazikal.


Little lamb, who made thee?
Does thou know who made thee,
Gave thee life, and bid thee feed
By the stream and o’er the mead;
Gave thee clothing of delight,
Softest clothing, woolly, bright;
Gave thee such a tender voice,
Making all the vales rejoice?
Little lamb, who made thee?
Does thou know who made thee?

Little lamb, I’ll tell thee;
Little lamb, I’ll tell thee:
He is called by thy name,
For He calls Himself a Lamb.
He is meek, and He is mild,
He became a little child.
I a child, and thou a lamb,
We are called by His name.
Little lamb, God bless thee!
Little lamb, God bless thee!


Ti agno ki to mama?
To kone ki to papa?
Kisannla ti donn twa ler;
Lerb ver tann ek dilo kler;
Donn twa lalenn kotone
Pou liver ek pou lete;
Donn twa zoli ti lavwa
Ki met later dan lazwa?
Ti agno ki to mama?
To kone ki to papa?

Ti agno, tann mwa bien;
Ti agno tann sa bien:
Li ‘si li enn ti agno,
Li apel Limem agno.
Li dou e li pa violan,
Li ti pran form enn zanfan.
Mwa zanfan e twa agno
Nou pou toultan de matlo.
Ti agno, Bondie beni!
Ti agno, Bondie beni!


‘Father, father, where are you going?
O do not walk so fast!
Speak, father, speak to your little boy,
Or else I shall be lost.’
The night was dark, no father was there,
The child was wet with dew;
The mire was deep, and the child did weep,
And away the vapour flew.


“Papa, papa kot to ete?
To pe mars tro vit!
Papa koz ar to ti garson,
Sinon li pou plot.”

Lanwit ti nwar, ti garson tousel,
Ti lapli tranp li net;
Labou monte, ti garson plore,
Labrim kile, disparet.


The little boy lost in the lonely fen,
Led by the wandering light,
Began to cry, but God, ever nigh,
Appeared like his father, in white.

He kissed the child, and by the hand led,
And to his mother brought,
Who in sorrow pale, through the lonely dale,
Her little boy weeping sought.


Ti garson perdi dan laplenn tranpe,
Trike par fos lalimier,
Koumans plore, me Bondie toultan la,
Kouma so papa li fer;

Anbras zanfan la, trap li par lame,
Amenn li kot so mama
Ki ti trakase laba dan vale,
Plore pe rod so baba.


Sweet dreams, form a shade
O’er my lovely infant’s head!
Sweet dreams of pleasant streams
By happy, silent, moony beams!

Sweet Sleep, with soft down
Weave thy brows an infant crown!
Sweet Sleep, angel mild,
Hover o’er my happy child!

Sweet smiles, in the night
Hover over my delight!
Sweet smiles, mother’s smiles,
All the livelong night beguiles.

Sweet moans, dovelike sighs,
Chase not slumber from thy eyes!
Sweet moans, sweeter smiles,
All the dovelike moans beguiles.

Sleep, sleep, happy child!
All creation slept and smiled.
Sleep, sleep, happy sleep,
While o’er thee thy mother weep.

Sweet babe, in thy face
Holy image I can trace;
Sweet babe, once like thee
Thy Maker lay, and wept for me:

Wept for me, for thee, for all,
When He was an infant small.
Thou His image ever see,
Heavenly face that smiles on thee!

Smiles on thee, on me, on all,
Who became an infant small;
Infant smiles are His own smiles;
Heaven and earth to peace beguiles.


Rev dou, protez bien
Somey mo baba ar swen!
Rev dou, montre li
Douser lalinn lor lili!

Somey kalm ar douser
Tres enn kouronn set kouler!
Somey dou, anz lao,
Vey mo baba pe dodo!

Sourir dou, dan aswar
Protez lasours mo lespwar!
Sourir dou, mo mama,
Pa les fernwar bles baba!

Plengne dou, ti kolom,
Pa kas somey ti bolom!
Plengne dou, sourir dou,
Pa les baba gagn boubou.

Dodo bien mo baba!
Lavi dormi san traka.
Dormi anpe mo gate,
Larm to mama pe veye.

Baba dou, to figir
Montre Zezi so sourir;
Baba dou, kouma twa
Bondie ti vers larm pou mwa;

Pou mwa, pou twa, pou nou tou
Kan Li ti enn Bebe dou.
So figir dan to lizie,
So lalev tras sourir Bondie.

Sourir pou twa, pou mwa, pou tou
Kan Li ti vinn enn Bebe dou;
Sourir bebe So sourir sa
Ki sem lape dan douniya.


To Mercy, Pity, Peace, and Love,
All pray in their distress,
And to these virtues of delight
Return their thankfulness.

For Mercy, Pity, Peace, and Love,
Is God our Father dear;
And Mercy, Pity, Peace, and Love,
Is man, His child and care.

For Mercy has a human heart;
Pity, a human face;
And Love, the human form divine:
And Peace, the human dress.

Then every man, of every clime,
That prays in his distress,
Prays to the human form divine:
Love, Mercy, Pity, Peace.

And all must love the human form,
In heathen, Turk, or Jew.
Where Mercy, Love, and Pity dwell,
There God is dwelling too.


Pardon, Pitie, Lape, Lamour
Nou priye dan traka;
Kan lapriyer finn ekzose
Nou dir mersi Papa.

Pardon, Pitie, Lape, Lamour
Limem Mama-Papa;
Pardon, Pitie, Lape, Lamour
Se So Zanfan, twa, mwa.

Pardon ena leker imen;
Pitie se so vizaz;
Lamour se Bondie vinn imen;
Lape se lenz dimoun.

Kan dimoun partou kote
Pe priye dan traka,
Zot priye Bondie vinn imen:
Lamour, Pardon, Pitie, Lape.

Bizen kontan Bondie Imen
Ki li payen ou Zwif.
Kan Pardon, Lamour, Pitie la
Bondie ‘si li la.


The sun descending in the West,
The evening star does shine;
The birds are silent in their nest,
And I must seek for mine.
The moon, like a flower
In heaven’s high bower,
With silent delight,
Sits and smiles on the night.

Farewell, green fields and happy groves,
Where flocks have took delight,
Where lambs have nibbled, silent moves
The feet of angels bright;
Unseen, they pour blessing,
And joy without ceasing,
On each bud and blossom,
And each sleeping bosom.

They look in every thoughtless nest
Where birds are covered warm;
They visit caves of every beast,
To keep them all from harm:
If they see any weeping
That should have been sleeping,
They pour sleep on their head,
And sit down by their bed.

When wolves and tigers howl for prey,
They pitying stand and weep;
Seeking to drive their thirst away,
And keep them from the sheep.
But, if they rush dreadful,
The angels, most heedful,
Receive each mild spirit,
New worlds to inherit.

And there the lion’s ruddy eyes
Shall flow with tears of gold:
And pitying the tender cries,
And walking round the fold:
Saying: ‘Wrath by His meekness,
And, by His health, sickness,
Is driven away
From our immortal day.

‘And now beside thee, bleating lamb,
I can lie down and sleep,
Or think on Him who bore thy name,
Graze after thee, and weep.
For, washed in life’s river,
My bright mane for ever
Shall shine like the gold,
As I guard o’er the fold.’


Soley tanto pe’al bwar dilo,
Zetwal pe kas palto;
Zwazo ansilans pe dormi
E mo lor mo lili.
Lalinn kouma’enn fler
Lao pe ekler
Ar plezir dousman
Lanwit souriyan.

Salam karo ek soubwa ge
Kot troupo ti broute,
Kot agno ti grignot lerb tann,
Prezans bann anz pa fonn;
Envizib, bann fe
Vers benediksion
Lor fler ek bouton,
Lor somey parfe.

Bann anz chek bien partou kote
Si zwazo bien oso;
Vizit bann lakav zanimo,
Anpes difikilte.
Si larm pe koule
Olie rev flote,
Zot fer larm dormi,
Vey dan bor lili.

Kan bebet feros atake
Bann anz plore, gete;
Zot sey efas laswaf disan,
Anpes grif bles zanfan.
Si ravaz kraz kor,
Partou sem lamor,
Zot okip bann nam
Dan lemonn tamam.

Laba lion ar lizie dife
Larm lor li pou verse;
Pou’ena pitie pou penitans,
Pou tou, bon sirveyans.
Pardon dres vanzans,
Lamour, pestilans;
Soufrans pa gagn bonn
Dan nouvo lemonn.

Lion la li dir, “Zoli agno
Anou dormi ansam;
Nou pans Zezi ki enn Agno,
Brout lerb, plore ansam.
Ar dilo pirte
Mo krinier briye
Kouma lor, matlo,
Ler mo vey lanklo.”


Can I see another’s woe,
And not be in sorrow too?
Can I see another’s grief,
And not seek for kind relief?

Can I see a falling tear,
And not feel my sorrow’s share?
Can a father see his child
Weep, nor be with sorrow filled?

Can a mother sit and hear
An infant groan, an infant fear?
No, no! never can it be!
Never, never can it be!

And can He who smiles on all
Hear the wren with sorrows small,
Hear the small bird’s grief and care,
Hear the woes that infants bear—

And not sit beside the nest,
Pouring pity in their breast,
And not sit the cradle near,
Weeping tear on infant’s tear?

And not sit both night and day,
Wiping all our tears away?
O no! never can it be!
Never, never can it be!

He doth give His joy to all:
He becomes an infant small,
He becomes a man of woe,
He doth feel the sorrow too.

Think not thou canst sigh a sigh,
And thy Maker is not by:
Think not thou canst weep a tear,
And thy Maker is not near.

O He gives to us His joy,
That our grief He may destroy:
Till our grief is fled and gone
He doth sit by us and moan.


Kapav get enn lot soufer
San santi pwa so douler?
Kapav get enn lot sagren
San rod enn konsolasion?

Kapav get larm pe koule
San pran kont enn malere?
Kapav sa pou enn paran
Get so zanfan plor disan?

Kapav sa pou enn mama
Les baba touf dan traka?
Non, non, non! Peyna sime!
Peyna sime! Peyna sime!

Dir mwa si Li, Li kapav
Tann ti zwazo may dan kav,
Tann ti mwano dan tourman,
Tann soufrans bann ti zanfan

E pa bord kot so lili
Pou vers konfor dan lespri;
E pa koste ar so ber
Pou vers larm lor so maler?

E pa pas lanwit, lizour,
Souy so larm, sakenn so tour?
Non, non, non! Peyna sime!
Peyna sime! Peyna sime!

Limemsa ti donn lespwar:
Li ti ne aswar dan nwar;
Ler vinn gran li pas martir,
Me zame perdi sourir.

Pa kwar ler nou pe sagren
Mama-Papa tas dan kwen;
Pa kwar ler larm li koule
Papa-Mama al chake.

Ar So gran serenite
Li fer sagren kaptile;
Tank sagren pe chombo nou
Li res la pou konsol nou.



‘Love seeketh not itself to please,
Nor for itself hath any care,
But for another gives its ease,
And builds a heaven in hell’s despair.’

So sung a little clod of clay,
Trodden with the cattle’s feet,
But a pebble of the brook
Warbled out these metres meet:

‘Love seeketh only Self to please,
To bind another to its delight,
Joys in another’s loss of ease,
And builds a hell in heaven’s despite.’


“Lamour pa rod so prop bienet.
Li pa pran kont so prop lavi
Me pou lotla li kas latet
E fer lanfer vinn paradi.”

Samem sante enn plot later
Ler lapat bef pil-pil lor li
Me enn kayou dan bor dilo
Sant enn sante zis bon pou li:

“Lamour nek rod so prop bienet,
Ansenn lezot pou so nisa,
Ar larm lezot li ranz so fwet,
Fer lanfer aval Nirrvana.”


Is this a holy thing to see
In a rich and fruitful land,—
Babes reduced to misery,
Fed with cold and usurous hand?

Is that trembling cry a song?
Can it be a song of joy?
And so many children poor?
It is a land of poverty!

And their sun does never shine,
And their fields are bleak and bare,
And their ways are filled with thorns,
It is eternal winter there.

For where’er the sun does shine,
And where’er the rain does fall,
Babe can never hunger there,
Nor poverty the mind appal.


Sivilize sa? Sakre sa?
Dan pei later fertil
Lafen trangle tibaba
Kot roupi sem initil?

Lavwa tranble pe sate?
Lazwa sa ki pe plengne?
Zanfan pe korde dan nwar?
Sa enn pei bien fatra!

Zot soley zame leve,
Zot karo peyna kouler,
Zot sime plen ar pikan,
Pou zot toulezour fer fre.

Partou kot soley briye,
Partou kot lapli tonbe,
Tibaba pa mordefen,
Lespri pa paralize.


In futurity
I prophesy
That the earth from sleep
(Grave the sentence deep)
Shall arise, and seek
For her Maker meek;
And the desert wild
Become a garden mild.

In the southern clime,
Where the summer’s prime
Never fades away,
Lovely Lyca lay.

Seven summers old
Lovely Lyca told.
She had wandered long,
Hearing wild birds’ song.

‘Sweet sleep, come to me,
Underneath this tree;
Do father, mother, weep?
Where can Lyca sleep?

‘Lost in desert wild
Is your little child.
How can Lyca sleep
If her mother weep?

‘If her heart does ache,
Then let Lyca wake;
If my mother sleep,
Lyca shall not weep.

‘Frowning, frowning night,
O’er this desert bright
Let thy moon arise,
While I close my eyes.’

Sleeping Lyca lay,
While the beasts of prey,
Come from caverns deep,
Viewed the maid asleep.

The kingly lion stood,
And the virgin viewed:
Then he gambolled round
O’er the hallowed ground.

Leopards, tigers, play
Round her as she lay;
While the lion old
Bowed his mane of gold,

And her bosom lick,
And upon her neck,
From his eyes of flame,
Ruby tears there came;
While the lioness
Loosed her slender dress,
And naked they conveyed
To caves the sleeping maid.

Enn zour pa enn zour
– Ekout sa lamour –
Somey pou kase,
Later pou leve,
Tom lor lipie kreater.
E lerla dezer
Vinn zarden fri ek fler.

Dan lil paradi
Ti’ena enn tifi;
Layka ti so nom,
Li ti’ena set-an.

Pandan set lane
Nou zoli Layka
Partou ti promne,
Ekout kakatwa.

“Vini mo somey
Anba tonel fey.
Kot mo pou dormi
Kan papi fouti?

“Perdi dan dezer,
To piti pe per.
Kouma pou kaysou
Kan mami finn fou?

“Si leker fermal
Layka gagn dimal;
Si mama dodo
Layka lerla go.

“Aswar nwar bouder
Lor lasann dezer,
Les lalinn leve
Ler mo ferm lizie.”

Layka li kaysou
Pandan ki loulou
Dan kavern sorti
Vinn louk nou fifi.

Lerla lion rwayal
Vinn rant dan sawal;
Li fer enn letour
Otour so lakour.

Leopar ek tig
Zwe tiglaketig;
E lion milener
Dres so krinier lor;

Lis so lestoma;
Lor likou Layka
So lizie dife
Larg larm kolorye;

So madam lerla
Larg lenz tifi la
E zot sarye li,
Tifi andormi.


All the night in woe
Lyca’s parents go
Over valleys deep,
While the deserts weep.

Tired and woe-begone,
Hoarse with making moan,
Arm in arm, seven days
They traced the desert ways.

Seven nights they sleep
Among shadows deep,
And dream they see their child
Starved in desert wild.

Pale through pathless ways
The fancied image strays,
Famished, weeping, weak,
With hollow piteous shriek.

Rising from unrest,
The trembling woman pressed
With feet of weary woe;
She could no further go.

In his arms he bore
Her, armed with sorrow sore;
Till before their way
A couching lion lay.

Turning back was vain:
Soon his heavy mane
Bore them to the ground,
Then he stalked around,

Smelling to his prey;
But their fears allay
When he licks their hands,
And silent by them stands.

They look upon his eyes,
Filled with deep surprise;
And wondering behold
A spirit armed in gold.

On his head a crown,
On his shoulders down
Flowed his golden hair.
Gone was all their care.

‘Follow me,’ he said;
‘Weep not for the maid;
In my palace deep,
Lyca lies asleep.’

Then they followed
Where the vision led,
And saw their sleeping child
Among tigers wild.

To this day they dwell
In a lonely dell,
Nor fear the wolvish howl
Nor the lion’s growl.


Enn lanwit tourman
Layka so paran
Ti rod zot fifi
Dan rafal lapli.

Fatige, strese,
Anrwe ar plore,
Pandan enn semenn
Zot manz zot lapenn.

Set nwit zot dormi
Dan lakav minwi;
Zot rev zot bebe
Pe mor san manze.

Lor santie peyna
Zot rev zot baba
Nwaye dan lapenn,
Plore dan laplenn.

Latet fatige,
Leker dan mole,
Lipie vinn lagom,
Lizie finn vinn som.

So misie pran li,
Lev li, sarye li
Ziska lor sime
Lion pe repoze.

Pert-tan rod kile;
Sek-sek toulede
Tale dan kontour;
Lion fer zot letour.

Li renifle zot;
Enn kou enn, lot kou lot.
Li lis zot lebra;
Danze nepli la.

Dan lion so lizie
Ti’ena mirak vre;
Enn lespri an-nor
Pe briye for-for.

Kouronn lor latet,
So zepol anfet
Ar pwal lalimier.
Aster zot pa per.

Lion la dir, “Swiv mwa!
Peyna pou traka;
Dan sato ribi
Layka pe dormi.”

Zot swiv enn vizion
Ziska lorizon;
Zot trouv zot zanfan
Parmi tig mesan.

Zot lakaz aster
Li dan vale kler;
Zanimo feros
Ar zot finn vinn dos.


O rose, thou art sick!
The invisible worm,
That flies in the night,
In the howling storm,

Has found out thy bed
Of crimson joy,
And his dark secret love
Does thy life destroy.


O roz, to malad!
Enn los leker ros,
Viris envizib,
Ki gagn jos dan fos

Finn rant dan to nik
Lanfer paradi;
So lespri malis
Pe kraz to lavi.


Tiger, tiger, burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

In what distant deeps or skies
Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
On what wings dare he aspire?
What the hand dare seize the fire?

And what shoulder and what art
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And, when thy heart began to beat,
What dread hand and what dread feet?

What the hammer? what the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? what dread grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp?

When the stars threw down their spears,
And watered heaven with their tears,
Did He smile His work to see?
Did He who made the lamb make thee?

Tiger, tiger, burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?


TigOTig, laflam lespwar,
Ekler lafore dan nwar;
Ki Lame ek ki Lizie
Ti fabrik pwisans regle?

Dan ki lwenten galaksi
Dife to lizie sorti?
Lor ki lezel Li’anvole?
Ki Lame ti chom dife?

Ki talan ek ki zekler
Ti tourn ner dan to leker?
Ler leker koumans bate,
Ki Lame ek ki Lipie?

Ki lasenn ek ki marto?
Ki laforz moul to servo?
Ki lanklim? Kot sa trape
Gagn kouraz tini pwagne?

Kan zetwal depoz zot zarm,
Lor lesiel zot vers zot larm,
Eski So sourir ti la?
Papa Agno, to papa sa?

TigOTig, laflam lespwar,
Ekler lafore dan nwar;
Ki Lame ek ki Lizie
Pe fabrik pwisans regle?


I went to the Garden of Love,
And saw what I never had seen;
A Chapel was built in the midst,
Where I used to play on the green.

And the gates of this Chapel were shut,
And ‘Thou shalt not’ writ over the door;
So I turned to the Garden of Love
That so many sweet flowers bore.

And I saw it was filled with graves,
And tombstones where flowers should be;
And priests in black gowns were walking their rounds,
And binding with briars my joys and desires.


Ler mo ti al Zarden Lamour,
Ki ou kwar ti may mo gete?
Enn Lasapel ti pe kas poz
Lor laplenn kot mo’abitie zwe.

Lasapel la ferme akle;
Lor laport ti dir “Pa gagn drwa!”
Mo ti retourn Zarden Lamour
Kot zoli fler ti donn lazwa.

Partou kot mo lizie tape
Pier tonbal finn pran plas bann fler;
E soutann nwar monte-desann,
Atas ar pikan raket, plezir ek dezir.


Dear mother, dear mother, the Church is cold;
But the Alehouse is healthy, and pleasant, and warm.
Besides, I can tell where I am used well;
Such usage in heaven will never do well.

But, if at the Church they would give us some ale,
And a pleasant fire our souls to regale,
We’d sing and we’d pray all the livelong day,
Nor ever once wish from the Church to stray.

Then the Parson might preach, and drink, and sing,
And we’d be as happy as birds in the spring;
And modest Dame Lurch, who is always at church,
Would not have bandy children, nor fasting, nor birch.

And God, like a father, rejoicing to see
His children as pleasant and happy as He,
Would have no more quarrel with the Devil or the barrel,
But kiss him, and give him both drink and apparel.


Mama O Mama, fer fre dan Legliz!
Dan tavern laba, dimoun pe sante.
Mwa mo bien kone kan pe pran mwa kont;
Lao dan lesiel zot pran zanfan kont.

Si dan Legliz ‘si ti donn labwason;
E ti met sofaz pou fer fonn glason,
Sante ek priye gagn gou pa ase;
Personn pa ti pou kap devwar sakre.

Apart fer lapres, ti pou bwar, sante;
Nou ti pou ere kouma fler lor pie;
Madam Lokloke, kankrela Legliz,
Ar zanfan normal, pa ti pou gagn kriz.

Papa-Mama liniver ar plezir
Ti pou get So zanfan pe viv ek zwir;
Fini konfli ar boutey, ar Satan;
Ansam zot ti pou bwar ek soulbontan.


I wander through each chartered street,
Near where the chartered Thames does flow,
A mark in every face I meet,
Marks of weakness, marks of woe.

In every cry of every man,
In every infant’s cry of fear,
In every voice, in every ban,
The mind-forged manacles I hear:

How the chimney-sweeper’s cry
Every blackening church appals,
And the hapless soldier’s sigh
Runs in blood down palace-walls.

But most, through midnight streets I hear
How the youthful harlot’s curse
Blasts the new-born infant’s tear,
And blights with plagues the marriage hearse.


Ler mo mars lor lari kapital
Akote larivier liberal,
Mo trouv partou mem sikatris:
Tras febles ek tras tristes.

Dan sak lavwa ki mo tande,
Dan lavwa zanfan ki tranble,
Dan sak diskour, dan sak kontra
Menot mantal pe fer fraka.

Zanfan pe fer travo forse,
Fer miray nwar vinn blan Legliz;
Solda vant vid ar soupire
Miray lerwa pentir anrouz.

Dan lari minwi ekout bien!
To pou tann tifi vann lekor
Modi baba so prop leren;
Modi for-for karos lamor.