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pou bann kamwad ki pa kone
e ki fer vadire zot kone,
ki kontan manz banann dan de bout,
ki ole manz lomlet san kas dizef …
mo dir zot
kontinie atann mirak
lapli dan dezer

PREFAS

Apre plis ki 50 an travay teorik ek pratik lor nou lang nasional, finn ariv ler, mo kwar, pou enn rezime senp bann diferan aspe promosion, amenazman ek standadizasion nou lang Morisien.
Seki anvi konpran pou fer zefor neseser me seki prefer les prezize ek ignorans dominn so lespri pou kontinie bengn dan labou palab ek foste. Ki pou fer? Pa kapav perdi letan fer bourik manz lazle.
Lor plis ki enn demisiek travay dan enn domenn ranpli ar petal ek pikan, li normal ki finn ena osi bann erer ki finn bizen korize, bann konsep konplike ki finn bizen senplifie pou fasilit konpran, bann teori ki finn bizen rafine e adapte.
Depi lendepandans ziska zordi, nou finn fer boukou progre, rezistans finn bien diminie me res ankor boukou pou fer. Mo zis espere ki sa ti liv la pou permet nou avans pli vit.

50 an pli tar,
Boukou mo sir pa pou kwar,
Res boukou katar.

11.07.2019


Pa poz kestion
Pa rod repons
Zis fer koumadir
Peyna problem.
Samem sime paradi.



SAPIT 1

KOUMANS PAR KOUMANSMAN

Koumansman nou istwar bien lontan,
OU pou dir mo pe rakont zistwar,
Mo donn ou garanti pa manti,
ANz lao kapav vinn temwagne,
Sou serman, mo koz laverite:
Mouna ti dekouver nou kiltir.
ANtouka, nou tou finn res mouna.

Dapre bann siyantis, ena apepre 400,000 an desela, nou bann imen Homo sapienns, ti paret lor lasenn ek dan lasenn evolision. Sa ti arrive dan Lafrik, berso limanite. Sa nouvo kreatir la ti envant koze. Pou li koze, li ti servi so poumon ek so nene (organn respirasion), so lalev, lalang, pale, zansiv ek ledan (organn manze). Apre ki li ti peple Lafrik, li ti al peple nou planet. Sa parti nou istwar la ti arrive apepre 200,000 an desela. Akoz sa long period istwar la, kapasite koze, servi langaz li enn eleman enportan dan nou DNA Homo sapiens. Nou programe biolozikman pou servi parol koze. Akoz samem enn baba ki ne, nenport ki kote, li pou aprann vit lang ki dimoun koze dan so lanvironnman. Nou posed dan nou DNA enn gramer iniversel.
Si nou aprann koze depi dan vant nou mama se parski nou zorey li parmi bann premie organ ki enn fetis devlope. Akoz samem nou apel nou PREMIE LANG lang maternel.
Si aprann koz nou lang maternel li prese otomatik, aprann lir ek ekrir lang maternel ousa enn lot lang li enn zafer ki difisil, ki dimann boukou zefor e ki pran boukou letan. Lekritir ti envante apepre 5,000 an desela, koumadir yer, si nou konpar li ar istwar parol koze. Akoz sa, nou pa programe pou aprann lir ek ekrir. Zordi bann nerolengwis kouma Profeser Stanislas Dehaene (Collège de France) kone kouma nou servi diferan parti nou servo pou devlop teknik lekritir. Lekritir pa zis difisil pou aprann. Si nou pa pratik li kouma bizen, konesans la deperi ek dan serten ka, li disparet.
Enn lang li ne, grandi ek li mor. Ena bann extra gran lang ki ena boukou prestiz ki finn mor mem si zordi limanite finn reysi prezerv zot lor papie dan mize. Dimoun nepli koz zot. Ala detrwa nom: Grek ansien, Laten, Sanskrit, Arameen (lang maternel Zezi), Hebre klasik.
Bann exper estime ki ena plis ki 6,000 lang dan lemonn. Avek letan boukou parmi sa bann lang la pou disparet.
Dan Repiblik Moris nou koz e/ou aprann enn douzenn lang me ladan ena zis trwa ki ena fonksion lang maternel. Ki zot ete?

1. Franse: 4% popilasion;
2. Bojpouri Morisien (BM): 5% popilasion;
3. Kreol Morisien (KM) ek Kreol Rodrige (KR): 90% popilasion;

1% ki reste kapav partaze ant tou lezot lang. Bizen osi note ki bann ki koz Franse ek BM kouma zot lang maternel, anzeneral servi KM kouma enn deziem lang. Savedir nou kapav dir ki KM li lang preske 100% popilasion Repiblik Maritim Moris (RMM).

Dan sa liv la nou pou konsantre lor amenazman ek standardizasion Kreol Morisien (KM), montre resanblans gramatikal ant KM ek Angle e explor posibilite ek potansiel enn bilengism otantik ek dinamik KM ek Angle.

Pa per konesans
Ki nou gagne ar siyans
Ki zame pa rans.

SAPIT 2

KI ETE ENN LANG KREOL?

Nou koumans ar enn tizistwar.

Enn fwa dan enn galaxi dan lespas imans, ti ena enn veso entersideral. Abor ti ena enn pake vwayazer, zom-fam melanze, ki ti pe koz bann diferan lang galaktik kouma Alala, Bangala, Chakala, Douniya, Eplesa, Faloula, Gangana, Halwa, Iswara, Jalsa, Katora, Labaka, Makacha, Nachannya, Olamma, Papaya, Rastawa, Saraswa, Tawala, OUlala, Virama, Wayawaya, Yoyota, Zazamem ets. Veso la ti tas dan enn siklonn sideral. Zis enn ti group pasaze zom-fam melanze ti sape dan enn kano ki ti flote ziska enn ti planet kot pa ti ena kreatir entelizan malgre ki so fona ek flora ti bien devlope. Zot ti apel planet la Kriyolo. Kifer? Personn pa tro sir me dapre enn istoryen ti ena enn poet parmi zot ki ti dir ki kan divan ti pe soufle lor lamer, li ti tann koumadir “kriiiyooolooo” e li ti propoz Kriyolo kouma enn zoli nom.
Desten ti sap zot lavi me pa ti ena de reskape ki ti koz mem lang. Kominikasion ti bien difisil malgre ki zot ti konn detrwa kod langaz-sign. Dousma-dousma, zot ti oblize kre enn zouti plis performan pou ki zot ti kapav viv ek travay ansam. Kouma dan zot DNA ti ena enn gramer iniversel, zot ti koumans zet baz enn lang senp, limite me neseser. Aster falepa bliye ki dimoun ki pa koz mem lang kapav tom amoure e zot oblize servi ‘nouvo parol’ pou dir zot santiman. Zot ti desid pou apel zot nouvo parol ‘pijinn’. Ti ena boukou fam-zom ki ti pe servi Pijinn pou kominike e bann tibaba dan vant zot mama ti koumans tann sa nouvo lang la e kan zot ti sorti andeor zot ti koz Pijinn ki ti zot lang maternel. Sa nouvo lang maternel la ti konn enn devlopman akselere. Dan sa group la ti ena enn filozof ki ti fer enn letid lor diferans ant Pijinn ek nouvo lang maternel e li ti konstat enn gran evolision. Akoz sa li ti dir enn lasanble tou bann reskape ki ti bizen trouv enn nom pou nouvo lang maternel. Ti ena de kan lor Kriyolo. Bann ki ti kont sanzman nom ek bann ki ti pour. Ti ena enn propozision: apel li Kirryol. Pandan plizier banane diskision ti kontinie e sakenn ti pronons Kirryol dan so prop fason: Krioy, Kiroyo, Kroyol, Kreyol. Finalman, san kone kifer, Kreol ti vinn gran favori. Zistwar la ti kontinie. Plizier siek pli tar, bann abitan planet la, ki ti ena mem anset, ti koumans lager ant zot parski zot ti form diferan tribi: Tribi Kirryol, Tribi Kroyol, Tribi Kreyol, Tribi Kreol. Ti bizen trouv enn solision dirab. Enn zeograf ki ti exper dan so domenn, ti fer enn gran dekouvert. Planet la so nom siyantifik ti Morisiana e li ti propoze ki lang Morisiana ti bizen Morisianen. Ala deba rekoumanse! Morisianen? Morisianien?Morisavoryen? Morisian? Morisan?
Lor planet la ti ena enn exper dan fer ler, ki ti feb dan lekritir. So paran ti gagn latet ar li e so profeser ti rod swiside. Li ti exper dan fer fot. Enn zour li ti ekrir enn lartik pou montre so pa-kone e li ti ekrir par erer ‘Morisien’. Bondie tousel kone kifer me tou bann desandan reskape ti emerveye e vit-vit lang la ti vinn Morisien. Sa ti bien senbolik parski li ti montre ki lor planet la, person pa dakor lor seki vre e tou dimoun dakor ar seki fos.
Zistwar fini!

SANZMAN

Tou bann lang vivan zot sanze atraver letan ek lespas. Ena sanzman ki fer andouser lor enn long period. Ena sanzman brital ek radikal ki amenn nesans enn nouvo lang kouma dan nou zistwar lao. Anou get dabor sanzman andouser. Franse, par ekzanp, li derive depi Laten Vilger. Finn ena boukou sanzman si nou konpar Frase zordi ar Laten klasik me li fasil remark bann lien ‘zenetik’. Nou pran verb ‘aimer’ an Franse e so mo Laten ‘amare’ dan tan prezan:
amo – j’aime; amas – tu aimes; amat – il/elle aime; amamus – nous aimons; amatis – vous aimez; amant – ils aiment
Anou aster konpar sa ar Angle ek Morisien (KM)
I love – mo kontan; you love – to/ou kontan; he/she/it loves – li kontan; we love – nou kontan; you love – zot kontan; they love – bannla kontan
Sa bann lekzanp la montre klerman diferans ant evolision ek riptir. Franse ek Laten zot dan enn fami lang ki nou kapav apel Romann; Angle ek Morisien zot dan enn lot fami ki nou apel Kreol.
Pou evit konfizion, Kreol li pa enn lang me enn fami lang ki ne apartir enn riptir ar lepase. Pli tar nou pou rekoz lor la dan plis detay.

SANZMAN ANDOUSER

Ena plizier fakter ki amenn bann sanzman dan enn lang. Kapav detekte sanzman dan tou nivo – fonolozi, morfolozi, gramer ek vokabiler. Ala detrwa lekzanp:
• Ekonomi langaz: Souvan nou fer bann kontraksion, fer long vinn kourt. Dan Angle, ‘going to’ finn vinn ‘gonna’. Dan Franse ‘petit déjeuner’ finn vinn ‘tidej’. Dan Morisien ‘mo finn’ finn vinn “mo’nn” ets.
• Pran prete: Dan Angle ena boukou mo ki bann imigran servi ki finn rant dan vokabiler kouma ‘chicken-tikka-masala’; dan Franse ena plizier mo Angle: challenge, look, cool, burn out ets.
• Teknolozi: devlopman dan domenn enformatik finn fer boukou mo rant dan vokabiler bann lang.
• Sanzman kiltirel: Pou konbat sexism lang Angle finn fer bann azisteman. ‘Chairperson’ finn ranplas ‘chairman’; ‘fisher’ finn ranplas ‘fisherman’; ‘firefighter’ finn ranplas ‘fireman’ ets.
• Prestiz social: dimoun rod koz kouma elit. Sa parfwa li kre enn sitiasion komik. Dan Moris, parski dimoun panse ki nou lang nasional li grosie, zot fransiz zot manier koze. Zot nepli ‘al lakaz’, zot ‘al lamezon’; zot nepli ‘pe vini’, zot ‘pe vien la’.
• Onivo fonolozi, deplizanpli nou trouv lizaz <sh> anopozision ar <s>: ‘marse’ (to walk) ek ‘marshe’ (market); ‘dese’ (death) ek ‘deshe’ (waste) ets. Enn lot sitiasion komik. Ena dimoun ki ranplas <s> par <sh> parski sa fer “plus civilisé”: “Li rant dan shalon, asiz lor shofa”.
• Onivo gramer, ena laparision ‘kopil’ (copula) dan Morisien sirtou kan pe servi pasif: Li pe kwi kari > Kari pe et kwi par li. Sa fenomenn la li ankor rar me li kapav evantielman rant dan gramer.

BANN LANG KREOL

Kan de ou plizier lang rant ankontak, enn nouvo lang kapav ne. Apel sa enn pijinn. Ler li vinn lang maternel bann zanfan, nou dir li finn vinn enn kreol. Enn lang pijinn li senp e so vokabiler bien limite. Enn lang kreol li bien devlope dan so 3 nivo (fonolozi, gramer ek vokabiler).
Li enn erer asosie lang kreol ar esklavaz. Swahili, Afrikann, Sango, Bahasa Inndonizia se bann lang kreol gran prestiz ki pa enn prodwi esklavaz. Lang ki ena plis prestiz dan lemonn se Angle e li enn lang kreol. So nesans pa liye ar esklavaz.

ISTWAR LANG ANGLE
Pep Anglosaxon ek zot lang ki nou pou apel Anglosaxon ti ekziste dan Langleter depi bien avan nesans Zezi (BC) ziska anviron lan 800 AD/CE (lan 800 Nou Lepok). Erezman ena detrwa maniskri kouma ‘Beowulf’, enn poem eroik/epik, ki finn permet bann exper dekouver so gramer. Dan nou lang nasional, Morisien, lord bann mo dan enn fraz li obligatwar. Nou pran enn lekzanp: “Tifi la kontan garson la” (The girl loves the boy/ La fille aime le grason). Pa kapav dir: “la tifi garson la kontan”. Si mo sanz lord bann mo, sinifikasion pou sanze: “Garson la kontan tifi la” ek “Tifi la kontan garson la” pa vedir mem zafer. Kifer sa? Morisien li enn lang izolan. Savedir sak mo ena enn sel form. Aster anou pran enn lekzanp an Laten: “Puella amat puerum.” Li vedir, ‘tifi la kontan garson la’. Si mo sanz lord bann mo, sinifikasion pa sanze; “puerum amat puella” ou “puella puerum amat” ena mem sans/mining ki “puella amat puerum”. Kifer? Laten li enn lang enflexion. Bann mo ena plizier form: puer, puerum, pueri, puerorum, pueris. ‘Puella’ parey: puella, puellam, puellae, puellarum, puellis. Pran enn fraz SVO: size+ verb+ obze. Nom Morisien ‘garson’ li pa sanz form me mo Laten ‘puer’ li sanze si li obze verb. Li vinn ‘puerum’. So form plis enportan ki so plas dan fraz.
Anglosaxon li ti enn lang enflexion. Donk plas mo dan fraz li ti segonder. Me dan Angle modern lord mo dan fraz li fondamantal. Si deplas enn mo, mining sanze. Ekzanp: “The boy loves the girl” ek “The girl loves the boy” pa vedir mem zafer.
Bann verb Anglosaxon ti ena boukou form. Verb dan Angle modern ena maximum 5 form (eat, eats, ate, eating, eaten); minimum 3 form (cut, cuts, cutting). Gran mazorite (verb regilie) ena 4 form (jump, jumps, jumping, jumped). Dan Morisien, bann mo ena enn sel form, exepte bann verb ki fini par vwayel ‘e’ kouma ‘manze’ ki ena 2 form: ‘manze’ ek ‘manz’. ‘Mo manze kan ena’; ‘mo manz dipen’.
Kifer ek kan sa transformasion la ti koumanse? Dapre bann spesialis, pandan 9em siek ti ena enn seri evennman dan Langleter ki liye ar envazion bann Vayking. Pandan 2 siek (8em-10em) ti ena 2 pep dan Langleter e sa 2 pep la ti oblize aprann viv ansam malgre konfli militer. Se dan sa kontex la ki enn kontak/kolizion ant de pep ek zot de lang ti donn nesans enn nouvo lang. Okoumansman li ti enn pijinn, enn lang siper senp ki ti vinn enn zouti kominikasion bazik ant de pep me avek letan bann zanfan metis ti koumans koz li kouma zot lang maternel. Lerla nou dir ki pijinn la finn vinn enn lang kreol.
Pandan apepre 2 siek, William 1 (William the Conqueror) ek bann lerwa ki ti siksed li, ti enpoz Franse dan Lakour Rwayal, dan administrasion, dan lalwa, dan Legliz. Ti pe osi servi Laten. Me onivo popilasion nouvo lang la ti pe devlope e ena prev ki mem bann zanfan aristocrat ti pe koumans servi li. Lerla enn evennman spektakiler ti pez akselerater: talan ek kreativite Chaucer. Enn ekriven doue, ki konn Franse ek Laten, desid pou dir so vision artistik dan lang lepep. Mazik! Lang kreol la ti vinn lang nasional prestiz pou Langleter. Angle, lang idantite enn pep metis ti pran nom so pep. Enn nouvo sivilizasion ti lev latet.
Anmemtan ki Angle ti pe devlope dan enn parti Langleter, dan Lekos enn lot varyete Angle – Angle-Ekose – ti pe devlope e kan ti ena enn gran mouvman politik pou kre enn rwayom-ini, Langleter-Irlann-Lekos, e ki Lerwa Lekos, James 6 ti vinn lerwa rwayom-ini la, avek so nouvo nom, James 1, Angle so reyonnman ti grandi. Me bizen osi rapel ki depi Chaucer, kreasion literer an Angle ti pe kas pake.
De gran moman dan istwar Angle se kreasion dramatik ek poetik Shakespeare e tradiksion Labib an Angle ki ti apel King James Bible. Angle ti vinn lang nasional ek ofisiel Rwayom-Ini Britanik.
Kolonizasion Britanik dan Lazi, Lafrik, Lamerik ek Lostrali ti fer lang la vinn mondial e expansion lenflians USA finn fer lang la konn enn pli gran prestiz. Dekolonizasion pa finn diminie so lenportans. Okontrer, li pe vinn lingwafrangka mondial. Get dan Lenn ki pe arrive. Leta Endien pa finn reysi enpoz Inndi partou dan Lenn me, san okenn presion, Angle finn vinn lingwafrangka Lenn e zouti par exselans kreasion literer.
Kifer sa pe arrive? Kimannyer enn lang ki ti ne, ena apepre 1,200 an desela, finn kapav vinn enn zouti kominikasion endispansab pou limanite? Dan Repiblik Maritim Moris (RMM), Angle res enn moter solid pou nou devlopman entegral. Kifer? PARSKI LI ENN LANG KREOL. Enn lang kreol li ena bel souples ek kapasite adaptasion. Dan Moris, mo finn devlop ek teste enn program literesi bileng Morisien-Angle ki pou permet nou gagn enn popilasion konn lir ek ekrir, dan fason fonksionel, sa de lang la.
Bann posibilite bien gran. Mank zis volonte politik.
(extre Lang Angle ek Nou – Boukie Banane, 2019)

LANG KREOL MORISIEN (KM)

Istwar KM osi dimann enn retous. Pa kapav dir ki li ti ne lor later Moris. Anverite, enn pijinn ki ti enn lingwa frangka maritim ti devlope isi pou vinn kreol e pli tar lang national defakto. Ala kifer mo dir sa.
Pandan period Renesans dan Lerop, ti ena boukou aktivite dan Basen Mediterane. Devlopman teknik navigasion ti pe kas pake e abor bann bato ti ena maren diferan nasionalite ki ti pe koz diferan lang Eropeen. Akoz sa enn pijinn ti pe itilize e li ti vinn lingwafrangka lemonn maren. Enpe pli tar, ler kolonizasion Lamerik, Lafrik ek Lazi ti koumanse, bann maren diferan nasionalite abor ti servi sa lang la pou koze ant zot, pou koz ar bann kolon-pasaze e bann esklav ki zot ti pe sarye. Pa bliye ki bann marsan esklav ti met ansam esklav ki ti sorti dan diferan tribi, ki ti koz diferan lang pou anpes kominikasion ek rebellion. Abor bann bato se sa pijinn-lingwafrangka la ki ti pe koze. Bien sir ti ena bann adaptasion lor nivo vokabiler me gramer bazik ti parey. Dan bann koloni se sa pijinn la ki ti vinn zouti kominikasion prensipal. Popilasion ti grandi e zanfan ti pe ne e bann zanfan deplizanpli ti koz sa nouvo lang la ki ti pe konn enn devlopman akselere onivo fonolozi, gramer ek vokabiler. Li ti vinn enn lang kreol. Zordi li lang maternel 90% popilasion Repiblik Maritim Moris (RMM) e deziem lang 10% ki reste. Savedir 100% Morisien koz li. Peyna sape! Li lang nasional de-facto; biento, li pou vinn lang nasional de-jure.

BANN TERM KI NOU SERVI BONAVINI

PATWA: Ena dimoun dir ki KM li pa enn lang me li enn patwa. Zot pe fer 2 fot: premie dabor enn patwa li enn lang; deziemman, enn patwa li enn lang ki enn ti minorite koze ant zot me zot bizen servi enn lot lang kan zot bizen koz ar dimoun andeor zot group. Nou pran enn fami frankofonn. Zot koz Franse ant zot, ar zot fami ek zot lantouraz. Si enn manm sa fami la desid pou poz kandida dan eleksion eski li pou kapav koz Franse dan miting ek renion? Non. Li pou oblize koz lang ki mazorite koze. Savedir so lang maternel , DAN MORIS, li enn patwa. Apart KM, tou bann lezot lang dan Repiblik Martim Moris (RMM) zot bann patwa.

JALEK: Enn lot term ki dimoun mal servi se JALEK (DIALECT an Angle). Enn jalek se enn varyete rezional enn lang. Tou dimoun dan Lafrans pa koz Franse parey. Franse Paris ek Franse Marseilles pa parey. Zot 2 brans dan mem pie parey kouma Angle London ek Angle Edinburgh. Angle BBC li enn jalek prestiz.
Dan Moris dimoun kwar ki enn jalek li pa enn lang ME LI ENN LANG. Erer bann Morisien-Konntou-San-Konn-Nanye li mari serye. Bizen riye pou pa plore. San realize zot pe dir ki zot lang maternel li pa enn lang; zot pe osi dir ki li enn batar Franse. Rezilta, ler zot pe koz KM zot kwar zot pe koz enn Franse kas-kase. Ala kifer zot onte seki zot ete. Ala kifer ena dan nou pei boukou problem mantal parski nou pa kone ki nou ete.
Pli komik dan tousa se ki lor pie KM ena plizier brans – bann jalek – parski dan diferan parti nou pei ena diferan varyete KM me fale ki dimoun aprann ekoute pou tande.

LANG NASIONAL EK LANG OFISIEL: Ena dimoun ki konfonn sa 2 term la; zot kwar mem zafer sa. Ena lang ki akimil toulede fonksion. Franse, Angle, Alman, Sango (Repiblik Santafriken), Bahasa Indonesia (Endonezi) bann bon lekzanp. Ena pei ki ena 2 ou mem 3 lang ofisiel kouma Sesel. Enn lang ofisiel li lang lalwa ek administrasion kouma Angle dan Moris, Inndi dan Lenn ek Mandaren dan Lasinn. Enn lang nasional li senbol kiltirel enn pei kot tou dimoun servi li; li itilize dan media, dan ledikasion, dan politik, dan prodiksion artistik, dan seremoni relizie; li donn enn nasion so idantite. Dan Moris, mo kwar li neseser dan koumansman ki nou defini klerman bann fonksion. Les letan fer so travay. Pli tar nou pou kapav evolie ver 2 lang ofisiel konplemanter – Angle ek Morisien. Bizen ki Franse gard so pozision lang semi-ofisiel.

BANN LEZOT LANG

BOJPOURI: li lang maternel anviron 5% popilasion. Zenerasion apre zenerasion nonm lokiter pe diminie e lang la pe montre bann sign deperisman. Dan enn lavenir pa tro lwen, li pou disparet.
LANG ANSESTRAL: Aka, Kantone, Tamil, Marati, Telegou ek Franse se bann lang ansestral parski bann anset diferan group ti koz li.
LANG IDANTITE: Inndi, Ourdou, Arab, Mandaren se bann lang idantite. Bann imigran ki ti vinn viv Moris pa ti koz li me zot servi bann lang la pou define zot idantite.

REZIME

Dan nou pei nou ena 2 lang kreol. Nou lang nasional de-fakto, KM ek nou lang ofisiel, Angle.
Nou ena osi enn lang semi-ofisiel, Franse ki sirtou servi dan media ekri ek ojo-viziel.
Sa 3 lang la zot vital pou nou devlopman politik, materyel ek entelektiel/spiritiel.
Bann lezot lang ki nou servi zot ena valer emosionel plis ki valer pratik.
Aster nou kapav servi nou konesans pou devlop enn politik lengwistik ki pou permet nou avanse pli vit e pli bien.


SAPIT 3

KI BIZEN FER?

Bann konservater pou dir ki politik lengwistik ekzistan li korek e sanzman pa neseser. Ena pou dir KM pa enn lang e li pa ena oken valer lot kote brizan. Fasil reponn zot. Nou finn montre dan sapit 2 kiete enn lang kreol. Pa neseser repete. Nou poz enn kestion. Eski enn lang ena valer zis kan li enternasional kouma Angle, Franse ou Espannyol? Si wi, savedir ki Zapone ki koze zis dan Zapon pa ena valer? Parey pou Sango, Swahili ek Afrikaan.
Nou get enn kou sitiasion dan Island (Iceland). So popilasion li apepre 350,000, savedir enn-kar (¼) popilasion Repiblik Maritim Moris (RMM). So lang nasional ek ofisiel apel Islandik/Islande ki koze zis dan Island. Li mediom lansengman depi preprimer ziska liniversite. Li ena enn literatir an Islande ki extra apresie dan lemonn. Ena enn ekriven Islande ki ti gagn pri Nobel Literatir an 1955. Li apel HalldorLaxness. Kominikasion andeor Island li fer sirtou an Angle ki laplipar Islande aprann kouma zot deziem lang. Island parmi bann pei pli devlope dan lemonn. Li atir boukou touris par so politik Tourism Kiltirel.
Ala enn pei ki fier so lang ki koze par mwens ki 350,000 dimoun e ki konn servi so resours kiltirel pou fer pei la avanse. Nou dan Moris, nou ena boukou pou aprann ar bann Islande.

KI NOU BANN PROBLEM PRENSIPAL?

• Depi plis ki 60 an ledikasion primer li aksesib ek gratis. Depi plis ki 40 an ledikasion segonder li gratis. Kifer zis apepre 30% Morisien konn lir ek ekrir? Literesi (kapasite lir ek ekrir) li endispansab dan enn pei modern pou ki devlopman veritab ek dirab amelior kalite lavi. Ki definision literesi? Dapre UNESCO, enn dimoun literet li bizen kapav ekrir enn ti ese 150 mo lor limem – ALA KI MO ETE – dan nenport ki lang akondision ki so bann fraz respekte gramer ek regleman ponktiasion. Komie Morisien kapav pas sa tes la? Dapre tou bann gouvernman nou pei, anviron 85% popilasion nou pei posed konesans literesi. MANTI. Nou koz manti e finalman nou fini par kwar nou prop mansonz. Nou fer kwar ki asiz lor ban lekol – sof ban lekol – ase pou konn lir ek ekrir. Toulezan, par milie nou zanfan kit lekol primer san konn lir ek ekrir. Kifer? Parski nou pa servi lang maternel zanfan me obliz zot aprann lir ek ekrir dan 3 lang etranzer – Angle, Franse ek enn lang oryantal. UNESCO rekomande ki literesi bazik bizen koumanse dan lang maternel bann zanfan. Me nou dan Moris nou kwar nou pli kone. Fatra deklar mari.
• 50 an apre lendepandans, nou touzour pa finn vinn enn nasion. Enn nasion li bizen ena 3 kalite: enn istwar komen; enn lang komen; enn kiltir komen. Nou ena touletrwa. 1. Nou tou nou bann imigran lor later kreol; 2. nou ena enn lang kreol ki lang maternel 90% e deziem lang 10%; 3. nou ena nou prop lamizik ek danse, enn “kwizinn” extra. Seki anpes nou vinn enn nasion se nou prezize ek nou ignorans ki anpes nou trouv kler. Nou osi melanz kalchoul, nou konfonn kiltir zeneral ar relizion. Dan kiltir Morisien ena diferan relizion ki fer nou kiltir vinn pli for me relizion pa kapav ranplas kiltir. Relizion li enn ti parti nou kiltir ki bien-bien imans parski li anglob koutim, tradision, krwayans, filizofi, siyans, teknolozi, expression artistik (kouma literatir, teat, sinema, fotografi, lamod, lapentir, skilptir ets.) arsitektir, spor ets.
• 80% nou nouritir sorti deor. Nou tro vilnerab. Nou problem li pa zis sekirite alimanter. Nou kiltir alimanter li enn katastrof. Plis ki 20% nou popilasion jabetik akoz nou manier manze; 40% nou popilasion gro ousa obez akoz touzour nou manier manze. Nou ena de travay pou fer anmemtan: al ver sekirite alimanter e sanz nou kiltir alimanter.
• Global warming ek sanzman klimatik zot lor nou latet. Dan 10 an nivo lamer pou monte par enn met, apepre 3 pie. Porlwi pou inonde; lakot pou inonde. Pou bizen reorganiz lavi.
• Demokrasi anpann. Gouvernman lepep, par lepep, pou lepep pe sey fonksione san lang ek kiltir lepep. Rezilta, demokrasi finn vinn gouvernman elit, par elit, pou elit.
• Li enportan ki tou sitwayen RMM metriz Angle, lingwafrangka mondial, apart zot lang maternel.

Pou fer fas tou sa bann problem la, nou ena enn zouti mazik ki nou refiz servi: Nou Lang Nasional.
1. Pou vinn enn nasion nou bizen enn lang nasional. Nou ena li. KM pou vinn Morisien.
2. Pou konbat non-literesi nou bizen servi nou lang nasional kom mediom. Li posib fer tou sitwayen RMM vinn literet fonksionel.
3. Pou kominik ar lemonn antie nou bizen Angle, enn lot lang kreol. Sa pou akseler aprantisaz. Taler nou pou donn plis detay lor la. Grasa nou lang nasional literesi bileng entegral li posib ek fasil.
4. Pou transform nou kiltir alimanter e fer fas global warming ek sanzman klimatik, nou bizen lans enn kanpagn nasional ledikasion popiler dan nou lang nasional ki tou dimoun konpran.
5. Pou fer demokrasi vinn vivan ek popiler, literesi bizen ranplas senbol eleksion e lerla pie banann pou aret eli.
6. Pou ki nou vinn enn nasion modern kot tou sitwayen konpran ki pe pase dan pei ek lemonn, nou bizen servi nou lang nasional ek nou lang ofisiel ki de lang konplemanter.
7. Pou ki devlop nou literatir nasional ek lwazir ki fer nou vinn pli for, nou bizen konn servi nou kiltir nasional.
8. Pou devlop tourism kiltirel, nou lang nasional ena enn gran rol pou zwe.
Aster nou kapav etidie bann problem teknik e rod so solision.

Aya rod sembou
Lot kote dilo
Lergete sembou
Ti deryer ledo.

SAPIT 4

GRAFI

Kan nou ole devlop enn grafi pou enn vernakiler ki pa ena tradision lekritir, nou ena 2 opsion. Swa nou fer enn letid fonemik lang la e pou sak fonem (son) nou swazir enn sign (alfabet) (grafi fonemik); swa nou servi grafi lang ki pli pre ar li (grafi etimolozik). Nou pran enn lekzanp dan Lerop. Ena 2 lang ki derive depi Laten: Franse ek Espagnol. Lafrans finn swazir grafi etimolozik, Lespagn finn swazir grafi fonemik. Zordi, 535 milion dimoun koz Espagnol dan lemonn kont 280 milion ki koz Franse malgre politik agresif frankofoni. Kifer? Eski grafi ena enn rol ladan? Enn zafer sir, literesi dan lang maternel e dan lang etranzer devlop pli fasilman e pli vit kan servi grafi fonemik ek metod silabik. Sa li zis enn explikasion posib.

Dan RMM ena toulede tandans. Mo finn swazir grafi fonemik e alfabet Romen parski li pli fasil pou ansegn literesi e osi 2 lang etranzer vital pou nou devlopman: Franse ek Angle. Mo ti kapav servi Devanagri ki osi fonemik me mo panse ki alfabet Romen plis abordab e pratik akoz nou lang ofisiel, Angle, ek nou lang semi-ofisiel, Franse, servi li.

ALA BANN LET ALFABET SENP EK KONPOZE KI NOU SERVI:

a :kouma dan baba, chacha, dada, gaga, kaka, mama, nana, papa, tata, vava, zaza;
an :kouma dan ban, dan, kan, lan, pan, ran, san, tan;
ann :kouma dan bann, dann, fann, kann, nann, pann, rann, tann, vann, zann;
ar :kouma dan bar, far, lar, par, rar, tar, zar;
b :kouma dan ba, ban, bann, be, ben, benn, bi, binn, bon, bonn;
ch :kouma dan chacha, chichi, chocho, chou, chak, chal, chek, chok, choukchouk, choula, chombo;
d :kouma dan dada, de, do, dou, doub, douk, dous, dout, douz;
e :kouma dan bebe, cheke, de, fe, ge, nene, pe, beze, deler, demerde;
en :kouma dan ben, den, fen, len, nen, sen, ten, zenzen;
enn :kouma dan enn, benn, denn, genn, kenn, penn, renn, senn, tenn, zenn;
er :kouma dan ber, fer, ker, ler, ner, per, ser, ter, ver, yer;
f :kouma dan fa, fab, fad, fe, feb, fek, fel, fer, fes, fet, fey, fez, fiz, fol, fou, foul;
g :kouma gaga, ge, gou, gaf, gaz, gra, gro, gri;
gn :kouma dan dagn, gagn, pagn, bengn, sengn, tengn, sign, kogn;
h :kouma dan haldi, horl, holi;
i :kouma dan bi, chichi, chachi, didi, fifi, ki, li, mi, ni, pi, si, ti, zi;
in :kouma dan drink, link, sink;
inn :kouma dan binn, finn, ginn, minn, pinn, vinn;
ir :kouma dan dir, lir, mir, pir, sir, tir, vir, zwir;
j :kouma dan jal, job, jok, baj;
k :kouma dan kaka, kelo, kilo, koulou, kouk;
l :kouma dan la, led, lil, lili, loulou, lalis;
m :kouma dan mama, me, mi , mo, mou,;
n :kouma dan nana, nann, ne, nene, ni, nos, nou;
ng :kouma dan bang, fang, sang, tang, geng, peng, gong, gounga;
o :kouma dan chocho, dodo, koko, loto, moto, poto, rote, so, to, vo, yoyo, zozo;
on :kouma dan bon, don, fon, gon, pon, ron, son, ton, zon;
onn :kouma dan bonn, donn, fonn, konn, ponn, ronn, sonn, ton, zonn;
or :kouma dan bor, for, lor, mor, sor, tor, orne;
ou :kouma dan ouver, dou, fou, gou, kou, mou, nou, pou, rouz, sou, tou, zouzou;
oun :kouma dan goun, koun, poun, voun;
our :kouma dan four, kour, lour, pour, tour, zour;
p :kouma dan pa, pe, pi, po, pou, papa, pad, pas, pat, paz;
r :kouma dan rabo, rebi, rise, roz, rouz, rape, rar, ras, rate, raze;
rr :kouma dan barrtann, chouchoundarr, garrbarr, harr;
s :kouma dan sa, se, si, so, sou, sase, sab, sak, sal, sef, sif, sof, souf;
sh :kouma dan shal, shenn, marshe, deshe, kash;
t :kouma dan ta, tab, take, tale, tam, tann, tap, tarde, tas, tate, taye, tek, ter, tes, tez, tib, tiz, tol, tom, tou;
v :kouma dan vava, vag, vale, vaz, vef, vesi, veto, vibre, vid, vif, vis, vit, viz;
w :kouma dan waya, wi, bwate, dwate, fwa, mwa, pwa, swa, twa, drwa, frwa, trwa, paw, sawmay;
x :kouma dan tax, taxi, tex, fix, mix, box;
y :kouma dan yapyap, yoyo, youyou, bay, boy, sey, soy, souy;
z :kouma dan zaza, zaf, zape, zete, zile, zoli, baz, gaz, jaz, laz, naz, paz, vaz.

Ar sa bann let senp ek konpoze nou kapav ekrir tou bann mo ki nou servi dan KM. Nou kapav ekrir mo 1 silab, 2 silab, 3 silab ets. Anplis sa bann let la pou ed nou aprann lir ek ekrir Angle. Ar enn kout ros nou desann de zozo.

Kan nou finn bien konn bann let alfabet, nou bizen aprann 3 lezot kiksoz: (1) dekoupaz mo dan fraz; (2) bann regleman ponktiasion; (3) gramer KM.
Kan nou finn bien konn sa 4 konesans la, nou pou kapav ekrir ese, lartik, poem, pies-teat, tizistwar ek roman.

DEKOUPAZ MO DAN FRAZ

Kan nou ekrir, nou met enn lespas ant 2 mo. Samem apel dekoupaz. Dan ka KM nou enflianse par Franse, lang ki finn fourni mazorite mo ki nou servi. Akoz sa, ena dimoun ki panse ki KM li enn jalek Franse e zot dir ki nou bizen gard manier ekrir Franse (grafi etimolozik). Nou pran adverb Franse “avant-hier” ki finn rant dan nou lang. Kouma pou ekrir li? ‘Avant-hier’ (etimolozik)? Ousa ‘avantier’ (fonemik)? Ena enn desizion pou pran. Mwa mo finn swazir pou ekrir li kouma pronons li.

Anou koz fran! Ena enn ipotez ki elit Franse finn swazir grafi etimolozik pou anpes lamas posed kiltir avanse (high culture). Li pa enn desizion arbitrer me kalkile pou gard monopol konesans. Mo finn swazir grafi fonemik parski mo kwar dan demokratizasion kiltir. Bann progresis dan Lafrans finn sey reform grafi me bann konservater tro for.
Ala kifer mo ekrir: latab, yeroswar, detoutfason, falepa, kaspake, karitang, karipoul, karimelanz ets.

PONKTIASION

Mo finn adopte mem prensip ponktiasion ki Angle, nou lang ofisiel. Sa pou ed nou bann zanfan aprann lir ek ekrir Angle ar plis fasilite ler zot pe metriz literesi dan KM dan enn program LITERESI BILENG. Mo ekrir: pa’le (pa ole), nou’nn (nou finn), Lendi, Mardi, Zanvie, Fevriye ets.

GRAMER

Ena dimoun ki kontan dir ki KM pa ena gramer. Mo kwar zot koze pou labous pa pi.

ALA DETRWA ELEMAN GRAMER KM

Nou diviz bann mo KM dan diferan klas ek souklas:
1. Nom komen: latab, sez, lakaz, vilaz, pei, lamer, later ets.
2. Nom prop: Zanmari, Devi, Abdoul, Rozil, Moris ets.
3. Artik endefini: enn + nom (enn latab);
4. Artik defini: nom + la (latab la)
5. Artik demonstrative: sa + nom +la (sa latab la)
6. Verb tranzitif: ekrir, bwar, fer, priye ets.
7. Verb entranzitif: dormi, reve, panse, diboute, chake ets.
8. Azektif prenominal: zoli, vilen, bon, move, gran, tipti ets.
9. Azektif posnominal: entelizan, debrouyar, malelve, fier, vantar ets.
10. Adverb landrwa: isi, laba, anvil, bitasion, lotpey ets.
11. Adverb letan: zordi, yer, dime, apredime, lanepase ets.
12. Adverb manier: vit, dousma, for-for, brit, bien ets.
13. Adverb degree: mari, extra, ase, tro, preske ets.
14. Adverb sertitid: sirman, kikfwa, posib, sir-sir ets.
15. Pronom personel size: mo, to/ou, li, nou, zot, bannla;
16. Pronom personel obze: mwa, twa/ou, li, nou, zot, bannla;
17. Pronom posesif: mo, to/ou, so, nou, zot, bannla zot;
18. Prepozision: lor, anba, dan, andeor, andan, atraver, akote, ar ets.
19. Konzonksion: ek, me, akoz, parski, si, kan, kot, ni…ni, swa…swa, grasa ets.
20. Enterzeksion: baprrebap, alala, bez sa, etae, ferfout, topsa ets.

MARKER PLIRYEL

Se ‘bann’ ki marker pliryel dan KM: enn latab >bann latab.

MARKER KANTITE

• Detrwa, ennde, boukou, ennpake, plizier, ennlafoul, laplipar, enpe, ennta, par santenn, par milie ets.
• Sif: enn, de, trwa, kat ets.

MARKER TAN EK ASPE

Market pase: ti;
Marker fitir: pou;
Marker aspe progresif: pe;
Marker aspe perfektif: finn.

Sa donn nou:
1. Mo manze;
2. Mo pe manze;
3. Mo finn manze;
4. Mo ti manze;
5. Mo ti pe manze;
6. Mo ti finn manze;
7. Mo pou manze;
8. Mo ti pou manze.

Aster nou kapav zet baz pou enn literesi bileng otantik ek dinamik ar KM ek Angle.

Tann dir boufon Lerwa Lir ti dir:
Kan to pa kone ki to ete,
Kan to pa konn ditou ki to vo,
To zalou to vwazen dan loto;
To pa’le ekoute kan koze
Parski to tro sir ki to kone.
Akoz sa, mo bayo, douniya
San konpran li pe gagn kongolo.


SAPIT 5

LITERESI BILENG

Si nou premie pa dan lemon literesi li bizen fer dan lang maternel, li enportan pou RMM (Repiblik Maritim Moris) ki nou posed osi literesi dan enn lang ki pou permet nou kominike ar leres lemonn. Zordi zour ena enn lang ki finn vinn lingwafrangka mondial; sa lang la li osi lang ofisiel RMM; plis extra li osi enn lang kreol. Wi, se Angle.
Dan sa sapit la nou pou montre ki li posib fer tou sitwayen RMM vinn literet dan omwen 2 lang: dan KM (Morisien) ek dan Angle. Nou apel sa program la “LITERESI BILENG”.
Dabor nou get similarite ek diferans ant Angle ek KM.

Onivo fonolozi ena boukou son (fonem) ki sa de lang la partaze.

1. Nou get bann fonem konsonn. Ena detrwa fonem konsonn ki donn enpe difikilte: fonem ki reprezante par ‘th’ dan ‘think’ ek ‘that’; fonem reprezante par ‘ti’ dan ‘situation’ ek par ‘su’ dan ‘measure’ pa ekziste dan nou lang; ‘r’ Morisien ek Angle pa pronons parey; fonem reprezante par ‘h’ bien rar dan nou lang me pa dan Angle kot so prezans ou absans kre enn mo diferan (air/hair). Si profeser konsian problem la, li pou kapav ed so zelev.
2. Ar fonem vwayel ena detrwa ti difikilte. Dan Angle ena vwayel kourt ek vwayel long kouma dan ‘shit’ ek ‘sheet’; ‘piss’ ek ‘peace’; dan lekritir, mem alfabet (grafem) servi pou diferan fonem vwayel: ‘a’ dan ‘cat’ ek dan ‘bath’ pa pronons parey; ‘e’ dan ‘debt’ ek ‘decide’ pa pronons parey; ‘o’ dan ‘lot’ ek dan ‘thought’ pa pronons parey. Ar pratik bann zelev pou konn fer diferans.
3. Nou lang nasional li ‘syllable-timed’. Savedir tou silab dan enn mo ena mem longer; dan Angle ki ‘stress-timed’ ena enn silab ki plis long ki lezot: ledikasion/eduˡcation (‘ca’ pli long). Kan pe ansengn Angle oral, profeser bizen fer bien atansion. Zelev bizen boukou pratik.

Onivo gramer/sentax, resanblans ant sa de lang la extra parski toulede 2 lang kreol.

NOM:

1. Bann nom zot divize an de group kouma dan Angle: nom prop ek nom komen. Pou endik pliryel Angle, anzeneral, kol enn ‘s’ alafen mo la me ena detrwa exepsion. KM (Morisien) plas mo ‘bann’ avan nom la: tree/trees; pie/bann pie.
2. Kouma dan Angle jennder li asosie ar sex e li pa gramatikalize. Gramer Angle ek Morisien zot zero-jennder pa kouma Franse ousa Laten: zoli garson, zoli tifi/ beautiful boy, beautiful girl/ beau garçon, belle fille.
3. Dan Angle ek dan Morisien, enn nom kapav fonksionn kouma enn azektif: ‘stone’ (nom), ‘wall’ (nom) me dan ‘stone wall’ ‘stone’ finn vinn azektif. Parey kouma dan expression ‘miray ros’, ‘ros’ enn nom finn vinn azektif. An Franse nou pou bizen dir ‘un mur de pierre’.

VERB:

Tan ek aspe dan Angle ek Morisien bien resanble. Ala detrwa lekzanp:

PREZAN/PRESENT TENSE

Prezan senp/simple present: Gilain kwi manze pou so tifi./ Gilain cooks food for his daughter.
Prezan progresif/ present continuous: Gilain pe kwi manze pou so tifi./ Gilain is cooking food for his daughter.
Prezan perfektif/ present perfect: Gilain finn kwi manze pou so tifi./ Gilain has cooked food for his daughter.

PASE/ PAST TENSE

Pase senp/ simple past: Gilain ti kwi manze pou so tifi./ Gilain cooked food for his daughter.
Pase progresif/ past continuous: Gilain ti pe kwi manze pou so tifi./ Gilain was cooking food for his daughter.
Pase perfektif/ past perfect: Gilain ti finn kwi manze pou so tifi./ Gilain had cooked food for his daughter.

FITIR/ FUTURE TENSE

Fitir senp/ simple future: Gilain pou kwi manze pou so tifi./ Gilain will cook food for his daughter.
Fitir progresif/ future continuous: Salerla, Gilain pou pe kwi manze pou so tifi./ At this time, Gilain will be cooking food for his daughter,
Fitir perfektif/ future perfect: Salerla, Gilain pou finn (fini) kwi manze pou so tifi./ At this time, Gilain will have cooked food for his daughter.
Fitir dan pase/ future in the past: Gilain ti pou kwi manze pou so tifi si li pa ti malad./ Gilain would cook food for his daughter if he was not ill.
Fitir progresif dan pase/ future continuous in the past: Gilain ti pou pe kwi manze pou so tifi si li pa ti malad./ Gilain would be cooking food for his daughter if he was not ill.
Fitir perfektif dan pase/ future perfect in the past: Gilain ti pou finn kwi manze pou so tifi si li pa ti malad./ Gilain would have cooked food for his daughter if he was not ill.

ADVERBIAL/ADVERBIALS

Enn adverbial li modifie mining verb, ajektif, enn lot adverb, enn group mo ousa enn fraz. Li kapav enn mo ousa enn group mo. Gete oumem similarite ant Morisien ek Angle dan itilizasion adverbial. Dan sa domenn la Franse ‘si parey.
Kiki roul vit/ Kiki drives fast. (modifie mining verb)
Kiki roul mari vit/ Kiki drives extremely fast. (modifie mining adverb)
Kiki extra malen/ Kiki is very sharp. (modifie mining azektif)
Kiki roul lor sime vremem kas-kase / Kiki drives on a really rough road.
Kiki roul lor sime kas-kase toulezour/ Kiki drives on a rough road every day.

DIFERAN ADVERBIAL

1. Adverb manier/ manner adverbs: exprim kimanier enn zafer pe fer – dousma, vit, ar prekosion. Taz roul dousma, ar prekosion/ Taz drives slowly, with care.
2. Adverb landrwa/ place adverbs: li dir kikote aksion la pe deroule – laba, lor montagn. Yann viv laba, lor montagn/ Yann lives there, on the mountain.
3. Adverb letan/ time adverbs: kan aksion la pe deroule – yer, de zour desela. Rachel ti vini yer ou de zour desela/ Rachel came yesterday or two days ago.
4. Adverb degree/ degree adverbs: ki entansite sitiasion la – extra, move kalite. Yann extra ou move kalite foupamalis/ Yann is very or extremely careless.
5. Adverb frekans/ frequency adverbs: li dir dan ki frekans aksion la deroule – souvan, tanzantan, sak Dimans. Taz sante tanzantan ou sak Dimans/ Taz sings from time to time or each Sunday.

DETERMINAN/DETERMINERS

Enn determinan li donn detay ek presizion lor enn nom. Determinan divize an plizier souklas.
1. Artik endefini/ indefinite article: enn/ a or an. Enn lisien finn aval enn dizef/ a dog has swallowed an egg.
2. Artik defini/ definite article: nom+la/ the. Lisien la finn aval dizef la/ the dog has swallowed the egg.
3. Demonstrative/ demonstratives: sa … la, sannlala. Sa liv la pli bon ki sannlala/ this book is better than that one.
4. Posesif/ possessives: mo, to, so. Mo jinn pli zoli ki to jinn me so jinn bat tou/ my jeans are more beautiful than your jeans but his jeans are best.
5. Marker kantite/ quantifier: detrwa, boukou, enpe, tigit. Boukou dimoun pe lager pou aste tigit marsandiz la e sa pe fer pri monte/ Many are struggling to buy the few goods and this makes the price go up.
6. Sif ek ran/ cardinals and ordinals: enn, de, trwa; premie, segon, trwaziem. Sa trwa la pe lite pou sorti premie/ these three are struggling to be first.
7. Distribiter/ distributives: sak, swa. Sak zanfan pou gagn swa enn dipen swa enn gato/ Each child will get either a roll or a cake.
8. Exklamatif/ exclamatives: Ki kalite, Alala. Ki kalite gonaz! Alala bel-bel sousou/ What a trash! Such a beauty!

FRAZ EK KLOZ/ SENTENCES AND CLAUSES
Ena 3 kalite fraz: fraz senp, fraz konplex ek fraz konpoze.

FRAZ SENP/ SIMPLE SENTENCE

Li ena enn sel kloz ki enn group mo ki ena enn verb. ‘Dewa vann dalpouri/ Dewa sells dalpuree.’

FRAZ KONPLEX/ COMPLEX SENTENCES

Li ena omwen 2 kloz. Enn ladan prensipal e lotla sibordone. ‘Dewa vann dalpouri (prensipal) ki li kwi kot li (sibordone)/ Dewa sells dalpuree (main) which he cooks at home (subordinate).’

FRAZ KONPOZE/ COMPOUND SENTENCES

Li ena omwen de kloz prensipal ki konekte par konzonksion ek, me.
‘Dewa vann dalpouri ek li okip so zarden/ Dewa sells dalpuree and looks after his garden.’ ‘Dewa vann dalpouri me li pa vann chapati/ Dewa sells dalpuree but he does not sell chapati.’

KESTION / QUESTIONS

Ena diferan kalite kestion. Ala 3 prensipal.
1. Kestion ‘wi/non – yes/no’ questions. So repons swa ‘wi’ swa ‘non’. Eski to fen?/ Are you hungry?
2. Kestion-K/ W-questions. Kestion ki koumans par kisannla, ki, kan, kot, kifer (who, what, when, where, why). Kisannla ti dir sa? Ki li ti dir? Kan li ti dir sa? Kot li ti dir sa? Kifer li ti dir sa?/ Who said that? What did he say? When did he say that? Where did he say that? Why did he say that?
3. Kestion retorik/ rhetorical question. Se enn kestion ki pa dimann repons. Ki kone ?/ Who knows? Bel-bel koze zot ti koze, kot zot aster? Big talk they talked, where are they now?

VOKABILER/ LEXIS

Nou apel KM enn lang kreol ar baz lexical Franse. Savedir dan koumansman so devlopman Franse ti prensipal lasours mo. Nou mem panse ki ti ena plennti mo ki bann maren sa lepok la ti pe servi kouma ‘gete’ ek ‘amare’. Me ant 18em siek ek zordi vokabiler KM finn adopte mo ki sorti dan Angle, Bojpouri ek bann diferan lang ansestral ek idantiter. Apart sa ena kontribision teknolozi, devlopman zeneral ek kreasion nouvo mo.
Enn karakteristik ki bann lang kreol ena dan devlopman vokabiler se mo konpoze (compound words). Angle servi sa boukou parey kouma Morisien.
Anou get detrwa lekzanp:
• LENFLIANS ADMINISTRASION ANGLE: spiker, stennding-order, lider, poling, balot, mesennjer, fayl, notis, beslouzer, krosingzeflor, bil, ak, waitpeper, fers, C.P.E, form 5, S.C, H.S.C, B.A, M.A, Mfil, Piechdi, lekcherer, registrar ets.
• LENFLIANS BANN LANG AZIATIK: chacha, chachi, mamou, dada, dadi, nana, nani, baprrebap, karribarri, chouchoundarr, garrbarr, barrtann, babam, amam, tata, bawa, odne, sari, chounidar, chous, choli, champal, masala, vinnday, rougay, rason, karrmadi, chawtarri, Holi, Divali, Id, hakienn, noukienn, wanntann, paw, foungpaw, popo, soy, roja, maktab, kirrtann, bajann, goulapjamoun, soutalfinn, briyani, halwa, jilebi, langra, kannwa, pagla, tamasa, ganndol ets.
• LENFLIANS TEKNOLOZI: kompyouter, kibord, maws, laptop, techpad, youesbi, heb, modem, kordles, rimot, link, fib-optik, imeyl, dilit, sev, kopi-pes, katapilar, jesibi, selfloder, broumwed, ets.
• DEVLOPMAN ZENERAL: erport, krouz, konnteyner, kashpognt, kreditkard, katamaran, botomglars, bungijemping, serfing, ets.
• KREASION NOUVO MO: chake, royos, droger, ets.
• MO-KONPOZE: lakaz-zwazo (birdcage), kazot-poul (chicken coop), karipwason (fish curry), pwagne-laport (doorknob), lasamdormi (bedroom), pie-mang (mango tree), fler-raket (cactus flower), ets.


“Pa ekout li, pa pran li kont
Li dir nou aprann kreol
Me li li koz Angle ar so lisien
Avoy so zanfan dan lekol prive
Li pa’le ki zanfan kouli ek esklav devlope
Kreol pa enn lang
Enn patwa sa
Enn jalek
Enn pete bourik vilger ek grosie
Aster li fer nou kwar Angle enn lang kreol
Shakespeare ti enn kreol
Larenn enn kreol
Enn prenses tamtam

JAY HINDU RASHTRA!”

SAPIT 6

LITERATIR TRILENG

Devlopman ek standardizasion enn lang li pa depann zis lor dimoun ki koz li ek lengwis ki analiz li. Li depann boukou lor kreasion literer – poezi, teat, tizistwar, novela, roman ets. Bann ekriven kre nouvo stil, nouvo striktir, nouvo expression, donn vie mo nouvo mining. Kan zot travay rant dan lekol, bann zanfan dekouver diferans ant langaz toulezour ek expression literer, ant kiltir brit ek kiltir rafine, ant jaman brit ek jaman taye par enn koneser. Nou lang pou gagn galon, epeser ek gabari ler li devlop kotakot ar Angle ek Franse. Akoz sa nou bizen devlop literesi ek literatir bileng dabor ek literesi ek literatir trileng answit. Franse, 3em lang RMM, pou ede sirtou dan devlopman vokabiler me falepa ki nou ‘Fransiz’ fonolozi ek gramer KM. Si nou pa fer atansion nou pou prodwir enn farata malbelo, enn kari melanz san gou.


             OM
Mama-Papa kreater
Imansite liniver
Parfwa mo tann twa riye
Ler to zanfan pe fane
Me mo kone to sagren
Nou finn les lame ketren
Rant dan to zarden fleri
Pou plant malang santi pi.

Mama-Papa pardonn nou;
Ed nou plant lamour partou.

POU TOU DIMOUN KI KONSERNE

DEV VIRAHSAWMY

(A.K.A NARENDRAJ VIRAH SAWMY )
MA (Edinburgh), FRSA (London), Diploma in Applied Linguistics (Edinburgh), MQA registered trainer

Date: 02.06.19

POU TOU DIMOUN KI KONSERNE

An 1968, mo ti fer konfians Paul Berenger ki ti pe koz langaz sosialis. Mo ti kwar li. Mo ti fer erer.

An 1983, mo ti fer konfians Aneerood Jugnauth ki ti pe koz langaz linite nasional. Mo ti kwar li. Mo ti fer erer.

An 2015, apre bate bef ki Parti Travayis ti gagne, mo ti desid pou donn zot enn koudme pou redibout lor zot lipie parski Navin Ramgoolam ti pe koz demokratizasion lekonomi. Me kan mo aprann ki kontra BETAMAX ti ilegal e ki pe fer nou kwar ki kontra IPP (independent Power Producer) ki permet prodikter kouran soler, eolienne ets. vann zot prodwi ar CEB mem zafer ar kontra BETAMAX, mo oblize axepte ki sa santi marday. Mo rekonet mo erer.

ME MO PA REGRETE KI:

1. Mo ti kwar e mo ankor kwar dan lendepandans mo pei ki pa “La Petite France ou Little India”;

2. Mo kwar ki Arsipel Moris se bann lil kreol kot nou tou nou bann imigran sorti Lerop, Lafrik ek Lazi;

3. Mo kwar nou kapav ek bizen kre enn Nasion Larkansiel dan Repiblik Maritim Moris;

4. Mo kwar dan nou lang nasional Morisien;

5. Mo kwar ki lafwa dan Bondie ek Marxism zot konpatib;

6. Mo touzour kwar ki system kapitalis – sirtou so version extremis, neoliberal – pe touy nou planet;

7. Mo touzour kwar ki limanite bizen ek kapav envant enn nouvo system ekonomik ki pou permet dimoun viv dan lape ek lazistis.

Mo kone ki laz ek PPS (Post-Polio Syndrome) pe fer mo soley galoup ver lorizon dan lwes me malgre sa, ena detrwa ti travay ki mo ti’a kontan konplete. Zot konsern sirtou devlopman literesi bileng (Morisien-Angle) pou bann vwayan ek non-vwayan.

Malgre difikilte ki enn andikap done, mo finn gagn enn bon lavi parski mo antoure par mo fami ek detrwa kamarad senser ki pran mwa kont. Ena dimoun ki apresie mo kreasion literer. Mo dir zot mersi. Ena osi ki pa dakor ar mo travay literer ek lengwistik. Se zot drwa.

Mo pou kit deryer mwa plizier santenn poem, plizier douzenn tizistwar ek pies teat ek detrwa morso proz literer – novela/roman. Seki anvi konn mwa enpe pli bien pou kapav lir zot lor https://boukiebanane.com

Mo sel sagren se ki mo pa pou la pou ed mo trwa tizanfan, Taz, Yann ek Rachel fer fas bann gran difikilte kouma global warming, sanzman klimatik ek destriksion biyo-diversite. Bondie beni mo zanfan!

AMENN, AMINN, OM