BASIC ENGLISH AND MAURITIAN

NOUNS
A noun names a person, animal, plant, place, or thing.
1. For the plural form of most nouns, add s.
pen – pens
pencil – pencils
door – doors
window – windows
2. For nouns that end in ch, x, or s, add es.
box – boxes
watch – watches
bus – buses
3. For nouns ending in f or fe, change f to v and add es.
wife – wives
leaf – leaves
life – lives
4. Some nouns have different plural forms.
child – children
woman – women
man – men
mouse – mice
5. A few nouns have only one form.
sheep – sheep
deer – deer
cattle – cattle
furniture – furniture
NOM
Nou servi nom pou apel enn dimoun, enn zanimo, enn plant, enn kiksoz.
Pou endik pliryel an Morisien nou servi marker ‘bann’ ki nou plase divan nom la.
zanfan – bann zanfan; zwazo – bann zwazo; pie – bann pie; latab – bann latab ets.
ARTICLES
There are two types of articles: indefinite and definite articles.
The words ‘a’, ‘an’, and ‘the’ are special words called articles.
1. Indefinite Articles: a, an
‘an’ is used before singular nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u).
an apple, an elephant, an orange
‘a’ is used before singular nouns beginning with consonants (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z)
A pen, a pencil, a door, a window
2. Definite Article (the) is used to indicate a noun that is known or already referred to:
I like the clothes you gave me.
The book I bought is interesting.
The chair I use is broken.
NB aricles are placed before nouns.
ARTIK
Dan Morisien ena 2 artik: artik endefini ek artik defini.
1. artik endefini: enn
enn latab, enn sez, enn liv, enn kaye
2. artik defini: la
latab la, sez la, liv la, kaye la
NB Bizen plas artik defini apre nom.
VERBS/VERB
Verbs express action, feeling or situation.
Enn verb li kapav exprim enn axion, enn santiman ousa enn sitiasion.
ACTION VERB/VERB AXION
I run./Mo galoupe.
I cook food./Mo kwi manze.
I clean my room./Mo netway mo lasam.

FEELING OR SITUATION VERB/VERB SANTIMAN OU SITIASION
I am happy/Mo ere.

I like to swim/mo kontan naze.

TENSES/TAN
There are 3 tenses: present, past, future.
Ena 3 tan: prezan, pase, fitir.
Tense/Tan English Morisien
present/prezan I cook food. Mo kwi manze.
past/pase I cooked food. Mo ti kwi manze.
future/fitir I will cook food. Mo pou kwi manze.
NB When placed at the end of a verb, ‘ed’ is a marker of the past. ‘will’ is the English marker for the future tense.
Dan Morisien ‘ti’ li endik tan pase ek ‘pou’ li endik tan fitir.
IRREGULAR VERBS
There are some English verbs which do not take ‘ed’ to indicate the past. They are called irregular verbs.
Here are some examples:
BASE VERB PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
eat ate eaten
drink drank drunk
know knew known
begin began begun
draw drew drawn
speak spoke spoken
swim swam swum
go went gone
take took taken
teach taught taught
ASPECT MARKERS/MARKER ASPE
In both English and Mauritian, aspect markers are used to indicate continuity (present or past continuous) or accomplishment (present or past perfect).
aspect/aspe English Morisien
Present continuous: I am cooking food./Mo pe kwi manze.
Present perfect: I have cooked food./Mo finn kwi manze.
Past continuous: I was cooking food./Mo ti pe kwi manze.
Past perfect: I had cooked food./Mo ti finn kwi manze.
PRONOUNS/PRONOM
A pronoun takes the place of a noun.
Example story:
Mary is one of the heads of the ToJi Corporation. Mary works with Mr. James and Mr. James’ son Tom. Mr. James and Mr. James’ son Tom are experts in biochemistry. Mary, Mr. James, and Tom researched and invented a drug for cancer treatment.
Let us write the same story using pronouns:
Mary is one of the heads of the ToJi Corporation. She works with Mr. James and his son Tom. He and his son Tom are experts in biochemistry. They researched and invented a drug for cancer treatment.
PRONOM PERSONEL MORISIEN
SENGILIE SIZE:  mo,  to/ou,  li
SENGILE OBZE:  mwa,  twa/ou,  li
SENGILIE REFLEXIF:  momem,  tomem,  limem
PLIRYEL SIZE:  nou,  zot,  bannla
PLIRYEL OBZE:  nou,  zot,  bannla
PLIRYEL REFLEXIF:  noumem,  zotmem,  bannlamem
ENGLISH PERSONAL PRONOUNS:
Singular subject:  I,  you,  he,  she,  it
Singular object:  me,  you,  him,  her,  It
Singular reflexive:  myself,  yourself,  himself,  herself,  itself
Plural subject:  we,  you,  they
Plural object:  us,  you,  them
Plural reflexive:  ourselves,  yourselves,  themselves
ADJECTIVES/AZEKTIF
Adjectives describe or modify nouns.
I like fairy tales. A fairy tale is an imaginary story that has unrealistic characters in a fantastic background. It makes me forget about the real world and refreshes my tired mind.
Adjectives generally appear immediately before the noun: a pretty girl; red flowers; a long stick; heavy boxes; warm weather.
Commonly, adjectives of opposite meaning are formed by adding a prefix such as un, in, or dis.
1. clear – unclear, important – unimportant, predictable – unpredictable, believable – unbelievable, common – uncommon, aware – unaware, ambiguous – unambiguous, conventional – unconventional, certain – uncertain
2. definite – indefinite, correct – incorrect, comparable – incomparable, complete – incomplete, evitable – inevitable, expensive – inexpensive
3. able – disable, assemble – disassemble, content – discontent, similar – dissimilar
AZEKTIF DAN MORISIEN
Dan Angle ek Morisien, azektif pa sanz form: zoli tifi; zoli pei; zoli fler; zoli lesiel; zoli lamer (beautiful girl; beautiful country; beautiful flower; beautiful sky; beautiful sea). Dan Angle azektif normalman plase avan nom me dan Morisien ena azektif ki plase avan nom ek ena azektif ki plase apre nom: zoli tifi; tifi debrouyar; gran garson; garson malen.
ADVERBS/ADVERB
Adverbs modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
1. An adverb tells more about a verb in the sentence.
The fire engine runs fast.
Listen to his speech carefully.
I browse the web frequently.
It rained hard.
2. An adverb describes more about an adjective in the sentence.
The news is very surprising!
The coffee is extremely hot, so be careful.
Nature is really amazing!
3. An adverb modifies another adverb in the sentence.
It rains very hard.
Computers run much faster these days.
I clean my room less frequently because I am busy.
4. Commonly, adjectives can be changed to adverbs by adding ‘ly’.
slow – slowly
quick – quickly
comfortable – comfortably
loud – loudly
clear – clearly
5. To change adjectives ending in ‘y’ into adverbs, change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ and add ‘ly’.
happy – happily
easy – easily
ADVERB MORISIEN
Enn adverb li modifie enn verb, enn azektif ousa enn lot adverb:
1. Li galoup vit.
Li manz tro.
Li badine toultan.
2. Li bien zoli.
Li mari vilen.
Li extra manter.
3. Li galoup mari vit.
Li manz tro boukou.
Li zape tro souvan.
Ena 3 kalite adverb: adverb letan, adverb landrwa ek adverb manier.
1. Mo pou vini dime.
Yer, mo ti dir twa.
Mo fann ar li aster.
2. Mo res isi.
Mo pe al laba.
Mo pil anplas.
3. Li koz bien.
Li galoup vit.
Li travay serye.
CONJUNCTIONS/KONZONKSION
A conjunction joins words or groups of words in a sentence.
Two types of conjunctions:
1. Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, so, for, yet, and not
2.Correlative Conjunctions: both/and, either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
1.And—means “in addition to”:
We are going to a zoo and an aquarium on the same day.
2.But—connects two different things that are not in agreement:
I am a night owl, but she is an early bird.
3.Or—indicates a choice between two things:
Do you want a red one or a blue one?
4.So—illustrates a result of the first thing:
This song has been very popular, so I downloaded it.
5.For—means “because”:
I want to go there again, for it was a wonderful trip.
6.Yet—indicates contrast with something:
He performed very well, yet he didn’t make the final cut.
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
1.Both/and
She won gold medals from both the single and group races.
Both TV and television are correct words.
2.Either/or
I am fine with either Monday or Wednesday.
You can have either apples or pears.
3.Neither/nor
He enjoys neither drinking nor gambling.
Neither you nor I will get off early today.
4.Not only/but also
Not only red but also green looks good on you.
She got the perfect score in not only English but also math.
KONZONKSION MORISIEN
ek, me, parski, ousa, me pa, swa…swa, ni…ni
Li ek mwa, nou ti al sinema.
Mo kontan sante ek mo kontan danse.
Mo kontan sante me mo pa kontan danse.
Mo ekout li parski li enn bon profeser.
To kapav al lekours ousa sinema me pa toulede.
Swa to aprann, swa to zwe, me pa toulede.
Ni to’le aprann, ni to’le travay.
PREPOSITIONS/PREPOZISION
On
1. Used to express a surface of something:
I put an egg on the kitchen table.
The paper is on my desk.
2. Used to specify days and dates:
The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays.
I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988.
3. Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer:
He is on the phone right now.
She has been on the computer since this morning.
My favorite movie will be on TV tonight.
4. Used to indicate a part of the body:
The stick hit me on my shoulder.
He kissed me on my cheek.
I wear a ring on my finger.
5. Used to indicate the state of something:
Everything in this store is on sale.
The building is on fire.
At
1. Used to point out specific time:
I will meet you at 12 p.m.
The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m.
2. Used to indicate a place:
There is a party at the club house.
There were hundreds of people at the park.
We saw a baseball game at the stadium.
3. Used to indicate an email address:
Please email me at abc@defg.com.
4. Used to indicate an activity:
He laughed at my acting.
I am good at drawing a portrait.
In
1. Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year:
She always reads newspapers in the morning.
In the summer, we have a rainy season for three weeks.
The new semester will start in March.
2. Used to indicate a location or place:
She looked me directly in the eyes.
I am currently staying in a hotel.
My hometown is Los Angeles, which is in California.
3. Used to indicate a shape, color, or size:
This painting is mostly in blue.
The students stood in a circle.
This jacket comes in four different sizes.
4. Used to express while doing something:
In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times.
A catch phrase needs to be impressive in marketing a product.
5. Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling:
I believe in the next life.
We are not interested in gambling.
Of
1. Used for belonging to, relating to, or connected with:
The secret of this game is that you can’t ever win.
The highlight of the show is at the end.
The first page of the book describes the author’s profile.
Don’t touch it. That’s the bag of my friend’s sister.
I always dreamed of being rich and famous.
2. Used to indicate reference:
I got married in the summer of 2000.
This is a picture of my family.
I got a discount of 10 percent on the purchase.
3. Used to indicate an amount or number:
I drank three cups of milk.
A large number of people gathered to protest.
I had only four hours of sleep during the last two days.
He got a perfect score of 5 on his writing assignment.
To
1. Used to indicate the place, person, or thing that someone or something moves toward, or the direction of something:
I am heading to the entrance of the building.
The package was mailed to Mr. Kim yesterday.
All of us went to the movie theater.
Please send it back to me.
2. Used to indicate a limit or an ending point:
The snow was piled up to the roof.
The stock prices rose up to 100 dollars.
3. Used to indicate relationship:
This letter is very important to your admission.
My answer to your question is in this envelop.
Do not respond to every little thing in your life.
4. Used to indicate a time or a period:
I work nine to six, Monday to Friday.
It is now 10 to five. (In other words, it is 4:50.)
For
1. Used to indicate the use of something:
This place is for exhibitions and shows.
I baked a cake for your birthday.
I put a note on the door for privacy.
She has been studying hard for the final exam.
2. Used to mean because of:
I am so happy for you.
We feel deeply sorry for your loss.
For this reason, I’ve decided to quit this job.
3. Used to indicate time or duration:
He’s been famous for many decades.
I attended the university for one year only.
This is all I have for today.
With
1. Used to indicate being together or being involved:
I ordered a sandwich with a drink.
He was with his friend when he saw me.
She has been working with her sister at the nail shop.
The manager will be with you shortly.
2. Used to indicate “having”:
I met a guy with green eyes.
Were you the one talking with an accent?
People with a lot of money are not always happy.
3. Used to indicate “using”:
I wrote a letter with the pen you gave me.
This is the soup that I made with rice and barley.
He cut my hair with his gold scissors.
4. Used to indicate feeling:
I am emailing you with my sincere apology.
He came to the front stage with confidence.
5. Used to indicate agreement or understanding:
Are you with me?
Yes, I am completely with you.
She agrees with me.
Over
1. Used to indicate movement from one place to another:
Come over to my house for dinner sometime.
Could you roll over?
They sent over a gift for his promotion.
2. Used to indicate movement downward:
The big tree fell over on the road.
Can you bend over and get the dish for me?
He pushed it over the edge.
3. Used to indicate more than an expected number or amount:
This amount is over our prediction.
Kids twelve and over can watch this movie.
The phone rang for over a minute.
4. Used to indicate a period of time:
I worked there over a year.
She did not sleep there over this past month.
By
1. Used to indicate proximity:
Can I sit by you?
He was standing by me.
The post office is by the bank.
2. Used to indicate the person that does something in a passive voice sentence:
The microwave was fixed by the mechanic.
The flowers were delivered by a postman.
The branch office was closed by the head office.
3. Used to indicate an action with a particular purpose:
You can pass the exam by preparing for it.
I expressed my feeling toward her by writing a letter.
She finally broke the record by pure effort.
4. Used to indicate a method:
Please send this package to Russia by airmail.
I came here by bus.
PREPOZISION MORISIEN
lor, anba, atraver, dan, ar, ver, pou, akote, par
poz li lor latab.
Met li anba lili.
Bal la finn rant atraver so leker.
Dan gramaten mo fer lekzersis.
Mo koz ar li me li pa ekoute.
Mo pe al ver Rozil.
Ver midi mo pou retourn lakaz.
Mo finn aste sa pou twa.
Mo res akote filing.
Mo finn vinn par bis.
ENPORTAN KONE/YOU MUST KNOW
Word classes are not always watertight. On the edge there may be some flexibility.
Bann klas mo zot pa net fix. Lor zot rebor kapav ena flexibilite.
Examples:
1. In both English and Mauritian a noun can be used as an adjective in certain context.
‘stone’ is a noun but in ‘stone wall’ it is an adjective. Other examples: bird cage, door knob, beach tourism etc. This is also found in Mauritian: lakaz lapay, pie mang, mang lakord etc.
2. In Mauritian an adjective may be used as a stative verb: Mo zanfan malen. Instead of a copula, stative verbs are used.
SENTENCES/FRAZ
A sentence must have at least a subject and a verb: It (subject) is raining (verb). Lapli (size) pe tonbe (verb).
There are 3 types of sentences: simple, compound and complex.
Ena 3 kalite fraz: senp, konpoze ek konplex.

SIMPLE/SENP: Mo kwi kari. (I cook curry.)
COMPOUND/KONPOZE: Mo manz dipen ek mo bwar dite. (I eat bread and I drink tea.)
COMPLEX/KONPLEX: Li pa travay parski li malad. (He/she does not work because he/she is ill.)

 

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